The Vegetarian Resource Group Blog

Sponsors for The VRG’s Online Charity Auction Announced

Posted on May 06, 2015 by Nina Casalena, The VRG Blog Editor

HELLOOOOO

The Vegetarian Resource Group (VRG) is proud to announce the official list of sponsors for The VRG’s 1st Annual Online Charity Auction. During our auction, we will be offering products from the following generous donors:

Vegan-Friendly Accommodations & Attractions
AMC Theaters
The Cherokee Rose Inn (Portland, OR)
Deer Run Bed & Breakfast (Big Pine Key, FL)
Hungry Ghost Guest House Bed & Breakfast (New Paltz, NY)
Someday Farm Vegan Bed and Breakfast (Freeland, WA)
Velo Bed & Breakfast (Eugene, OR)
Charm City Roller Girls (Baltimore, MD)
Walt Disney World Resort (Orlando, FL)

Vegan Apparel & Jewelry
Herbivore Clothing
The Hungry Elephant
Pink Calyx Jewelry
Pura Vida
The Veggie Republic

Non-Leather Designer Handbags
Pixie Mood
Gunas
Susan Nichole

Cruelty-free & Vegan Bath and Body Care
100% Pure
Ellovi
Enfusia
Sappo Hill Soap
La Bella Pink

For Veggie Kids
Crayon Rocks
Vegan Camp

Veggie Dining, Sweets & More!
Alternative Baking Company, Inc.
Ah!Laska
The Chicago Diner (Chicago, IL)
Chicago Vegan Foods
Little Choc Apothecary
Natural Candy Store
TofuXpress
VeganEssentials.com
Vegan Treats Bakery (Bethlehem, PA)
Wegmans
Wheatgrasskits.com

The VRG’s 1st Annual Online Charity Auction, held via Ebay Giving Works, will take place on June 1-15, 2015. The link to the auction will be announced at vrg.org on June 1st at 10am ET. For more information about the auction, including sneak peeks of items being offered, please RSVP on Facebook.

It’s not too late to make a donation! If you are a vegan-friendly business who would like to contribute, please contact Nina at ninac@vrg.org.

Anti-Caking Agents Including Calcium and Magnesium Stearate: Non-Animal According to US Industry

Posted on May 06, 2015 by Nina Casalena, The VRG Blog Editor

By Jeanne Yacoubou, MS, RD

The VRG received a question from an online reader about anti-caking agents. These are food additives that prevent ingredients from clumping together by absorbing moisture or oils/fats or by sealing ingredients against either water or oil. Citing silicon dioxide a very common anti-caking agent sourced from minerals the inquirer asked us why The The Vegetarian Resource Group’s Food Ingredients Guide states that anti-caking agents “may be non-vegetarian.”

Introduction

“Anti-caking agent” is a general class of compounds with a specific function in foods. Thus they are also known as “functional ingredients.” They are sourced from many different materials. New ones are developed by the chemical industry, approved for food use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and then introduced to the market. It is difficult if not impossible to generate an exhaustive list of all anti-caking agents and survey all companies manufacturing all of them. So we have focused on the most common examples and especially those that may have been derived from animal sources.

Calcium stearate and magnesium stearate may be used as anti-caking agents. (Herein referred to as “stearate compounds” or “stearates”: chemicals with a portion derived from stearic acid which could be animal fat- or vegetable oil-derived). Among all of the anti-caking agents commonly used today, only stearates possibly may have an animal origin.

Industry Sources

Acme-Hardesty® a supplier of calcium and magnesium stearates told The VRG on the phone in March 2015 that today “Food grade kosher [FGK] stearates are derived from vegetable oils…the industry standard.” When we asked whether all food grade kosher stearates are vegetable oil-based, we were told “Yes.” Acme-Hardesty wrote to us that “Our vegetable-based calcium and magnesium stearates are made from palm oil.”

However, not all food grade stearates must be kosher since the kosher designation is not FDA-mandated for foods. So the theoretical possibility remains that calcium or magnesium stearate, stearic acid and all related compounds used in foods could be derived from animal fats such as lard or tallow. Acme-Hardesty wrote to us that

“We do not give any of our tallow products the “FGK” designation, although a number of them do meet the FDA 21 Code of Federal Regulations requirements to be an indirect food additive.”

Employees of Brenntag Northeast, Inc.® a large distributor of stearates to the food industry told us that:

“…it appears that most of the food grade stearates are vegetable-based now. Ten years ago our suppliers sold some tallow-based but our suppliers are vegetable-based now. The tallow-based seems now to be selling into industrial applications.We identify if our products are tallow based in the product name.”

When we asked Brenntag Northeast what they thought was the percentage of animal-sourced stearates used today in the US food industry, we received by email in April 2015 this ratio of vegetable- to animal fat-based stearates:

“…I’m betting the ratio is 10:1 vegetable [oil] to tallow. No one wants tallow in foods these days.”

An employee at another Brenntag division, Brenntag Specialties, Inc.,® told us while reviewing sales data since 2007 that “almost all…[or] a large majority” of the calcium stearate they sold was vegetable-based and that only their vegetable-based stearates received kosher designation. As a raw ingredient supplier, Brenntag told us that they could not know the end products their calcium stearate was used to create or even know definitively that it was purchased to make food products.

The VRG heard this view echoed by some other company representatives. Clients may purchase food-grade products for non-food applications such as personal care products. We asked a few companies if they had any data on this point but all declined to provide any claiming client confidentiality.

Several other chemical companies spoke to us in Spring 2015 about calcium stearate production. We learned from Seidler Chemical Company that sells mainly to the pharmaceutical industry that “no one wants tallow anymore…I haven’t gotten a call for it in years.”

An employee in technical support at EMD Millipore told The VRG that they “do not sell tallow-based calcium stearate…all is from vegetable oils.”

A technical services manager at the Penta Manufacturing Company told us that their food-grade calcium stearate is “synthetic” with “no animals involved.” (product search code number for calcium stearate: 03-02900). Available on the calcium stearate page are links to PDF documents which state that the calcium stearate is suitable for vegans.

An account manager at Graham Chemical Company wrote to us that he had not “sold or stocked” calcium stearate for a food application “in some time.” However he said that:

“From what I understand, the tallow-based material is generally only being used in industrial applications due, in some part, to the ‘Mad Cow’ disease scare some years back. I know that calcium stearate in use for tableting in the nutraceutical markets (supplements, vitamins, etc.) has almost exclusively been vegetable-based for quite some time.”

Huzhou Sifeng Biochem Co. Ltd. told us that their food grade calcium stearate “…is from plant fat not animal fat.”

An employee of Huzhou City Linghu Xinwang Chemical Co., Ltd. wrote to us that “We only produce…stearate [compounds] of vegetable origin.”

A marketing officer of FoodChem International Corporation in China told us that “Yes, we sell food grade calcium stearate from animal fat.”

An Indian company Forbes Pharmaceuticals states on its website that their food-grade calcium stearate is derived from “edible tallow.” Forbes describes its function in foods as a “conditioning agent.”

The FDA specifies only “edible sources” as the source of calcium stearate given Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status for food use, implying that lard or tallow could be used as its source.

With the exception of two foreign companies, chemical companies in the United States in 2015 use vegetable oils (such as palm oil) as a starting material to make stearate compounds.

VRG’s Ingredient Classification Scheme

When The Vegetarian Resource Group’s Food Ingredients Guide was first published in 1997, animal sources of stearate compounds used in foods were common. Ingredient suppliers told us so at that time. However, over the past few years several food ingredients suppliers and manufacturers have told The VRG that a general trend regarding ingredient sources is that whenever possible non-animal sources are preferred. A major reason for this preference is lack of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) or avian influenza threats that many consumers associate with animal ingredients.

In 1997, because of stearates, The VRG had initially given anti-caking agents the “May Be Non-Vegetarian” classification. In light of current information about stearates, The VRG is now changing the classification for anti-caking agents to “Vegan*.” The asterisk alerts consumers that the theoretical possibility exists that calcium or magnesium stearate could be derived from animal sources but practically speaking on a commercial scale in 2015 in the United States we have not found this to be the case. With the possible exception of stearate compounds, all other major anti-caking agents used today are non-animal derived. Most are derived from petrochemicals and/or minerals.

Stearate Labeling

The source of calcium stearate (and all related compounds derived from stearic acid) will most often not be stated on a food label especially given the fact that none of its possible sources is a major allergen that must be declared on a food label according to the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) of 2004.

Interested consumers must contact food companies to find out the source of calcium stearate in food products. If a consumer has difficulty obtaining this information from a particular company, determining whether the food product is kosher may be an indirect way to infer information about calcium stearate. If it’s kosher, the calcium stearate in the food product is most likely derived from vegetable sources.

The VRG has noticed that these days many food companies and fast food chains indicate their sources of ingredients in parentheses after the ingredient on a label especially for ingredients which could have multiple sources. A notable example is “natural flavors.” Increasing consumer awareness and greater numbers of people asking food companies more questions about their ingredients contribute to greater corporate transparency. This higher degree of labeling precision was not evident twenty or more years ago.

For the first time, we recently found a label which specifies that the calcium stearate is vegetable-based: http://www.barkleys.ca/mints/

Smarties® candy has a vegan statement on its website regarding its source of calcium stearate: http://www.smarties.com/product/vegan/

Subway® Canada (but not Subway US) lists calcium stearate in its Honey Oat Bread. Consumer service representatives told us by phone and email that their source is “plant-derived.”

The contents of this posting, our website and our other publications, including Vegetarian Journal, are not intended to provide personal medical advice. Medical advice should be obtained from a qualified health professional. We often depend on product and ingredient information from company statements. It is impossible to be 100% sure about a statement, info can change, people have different views, and mistakes can be made. Please use your best judgement about whether a product is suitable for you. To be sure, do further research or confirmation on your own.

For information about other ingredients, see: http://www.vrg.org/ingredients/index.php

To support The Vegetarian Resource Group research, donate at: www.vrg.org/donate

Join at: http://www.vrg.org/member/2013sv.php

Submit a Vegan Recipe to the Maryland Buy Local Cookout

Posted on May 05, 2015 by Nina Casalena, The VRG Blog Editor

The Vegetarian Resource Group thought that some of you might want to enter a vegan recipe for the Maryland Governor’s Buy Local Cookout. Deadline is May 8th. See information below:

CONTACT:
Julie Oberg, 410-841-5888
Vanessa Orlando, 410-841-5889

Governor Hogan Invites Chefs to Submit Recipes for “Buy Local” Cookout

Recipe Submission Deadline is May 8

ANNAPOLIS, MD (May 1, 2015) – Governor Larry Hogan invites chefs using local Maryland ingredients to submit original recipes for the Governor’s Buy Local Cookout, which will be held at Government House in Annapolis in mid-July. Recipes must be submitted by Friday, May 8, and include products from at least one Maryland farmer, waterman, or other producer. Chefs are encouraged to submit simple but creative recipes that showcase ways the average Maryland family can prepare delicious, nutritious meals with locally produced food at home.

The cookout promotes the statewide Buy Local Challenge Week (July 18-26, 2015), during which all Marylanders are encouraged to eat at least one local product each day of the week.

“The Buy Local Cookout and Buy Local Challenge have become an annual celebration of Maryland agriculture and Maryland cuisine,” said Governor Hogan. “We look forward to continuing the tradition of encouraging Marylanders to buy local products from Maryland farmers as we highlight the benefits of preserving our family farms, protecting the environment and supporting our local economies.”

Recipes will be chosen in each of the following categories: appetizer, main dish, side dish or salad, and dessert. Selected teams will be invited to provide, prepare, and share their dish at the Governor’s cookout. Chefs should note that recipes may be published in the Maryland Department of Agriculture’s 2015 Maryland Buy Local Cookout Recipes cookbook. Complete rules of entry and additional information are posted on line at http://www.mda.maryland.gov/documents/2015recipeguidelines.pdf.

Recipes should be submitted online at: https://mdamarketing.wufoo.com/build/2015-governors-buy-local-cookout

Chefs who have questions, should contact Karen Fedor at Karen.fedor@maryland.gov or 410-841-5773.

Bone Phosphate

Posted on May 05, 2015 by Nina Casalena, The VRG Blog Editor

By Jeanne Yacoubou MS, VRG Research Director

While doing an update on anti-caking agents The Vegetarian Resource Group noticed several websites listing bone phosphate as a possible source. To the best of our knowledge, bone phosphate is not used in foods. No company that we know of manufacturing or selling food-grade anti-caking agents uses bone phosphate as a source. Bone phosphate has several industrial uses including fertilizer: http://www.sonac.biz/en/sonac-markets-products/sonac-products/bone-phosphate/

For information on other ingredients, see: http://www.vrg.org/ingredients/index.php

To support Vegetarian Resource Group Research, donate at: www.vrg.org/donate

Join at: http://www.vrg.org/member/2013sv.php

The contents of this posting, our website and our other publications, including Vegetarian Journal, are not intended to provide personal medical advice. Medical advice should be obtained from a qualified health professional. We often depend on product and ingredient information from company statements. It is impossible to be 100% sure about a statement, info can change, people have different views, and mistakes can be made. Please use your best judgement about whether a product is suitable for you. To be sure, do further research or confirmation on your own.

Food for Life Nepal Serves Vegan Meals to Earthquake Victims

Posted on May 01, 2015 by Nina Casalena, The VRG Blog Editor

We thought you would be happy to learn that Food for Life Nepal has been serving vegan meals to victims of the recent Earthquake in Nepal. They have already served over 50,000 meals.

For more information see: http://us9.campaign-archive2.com/?u=2eab8432a4d85906a90381049&id=38891bd927&e=338d88025b

Vegan Seafood Cookbook Now Available in Kindle Format

Posted on May 01, 2015 by Nina Casalena, The VRG Blog Editor

51kiuVVwJrL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_

KINDLE

Chef Nancy Berkoff’s Vegan Seafood cookbook is now available in Kindle Format. This book is published by The Vegetarian Resource Group. You can also order copies of this book in print format here: http://www.vrg.org/catalog

Inside these pages you’ll find:

Cooking with vegan “fish”
“Seafood” stocks and sauces
Websites offering vegan “seafood” products
A basic guide to using saffron
Omega-3 fatty acids for vegans

Avoid fish but still enjoy the taste of the sea with:

Ethiopian Style “Shrimp” and sweet Potato Stew
“Tuna” Noodle Casserole * “Fish” Sticks * “Crab” Rangoon
Eggplant Caviar * Gefilte “Fish” * Spicy “Fish” Cakes
“Fish” Tacos and “Crab” Enchiladas * “Tuna” Salad
Mango Salad with Avocado and “Shrimp”

After using this book, you’ll agree with millions of vegetarians and say: SEA ANIMALS — DON’T EAT THEM!

Paul’s Place Booth

Posted on April 30, 2015 by Nina Casalena, The VRG Blog Editor

by Navaal Mahdi

On Saturday, April 25th, Paul’s Place invited the VRG to set up an outreach booth in Southwest Baltimore. This was the first outreach event I attended with The Vegetarian Resource Group, and I was accompanied by volunteer Matt Baker, RN, and VRG staff member Nina Casalena.

Children gather at Paul's Place's Spring Into Good Health Festival in Baltimore, MD.

Children gather at Paul’s Place health event in Baltimore, MD.

I was pleasantly surprised while working at this booth; it was a chilly, cloudy day and we were worried that not many people would show up to the event. The turnout was great considering the weather, and many local residents were interested in learning about how they could incorporate more fruits and vegetables into their diets. Several people expressed that they knew someone who had recently become vegetarian, and they were curious about the impact a vegan diet has on not only a person’s physical health, but their mental health as well. Though I am not a professional, because I recently became vegan I was able to provide people with honest insight about the positive changes in my mood and energy levels. A few people were intrigued by this so much that they said they would try using more vegetarian recipes from the Vegetarian Journals we distributed, and we encouraged many people to start taking smaller steps in the right direction so they could one day make bigger changes more easily.

(from left to right) VRG staff member, Nina Casalena, Paul's Place Intern and Festival Chair, Emily Gebhart, and VRG volunteer, Matt Baker, RN, get ready for festival patrons at Paul's Place health event in Baltimore, MD.

(from left to right) VRG staff member, Nina Casalena, Paul’s Place Intern and Festival Chair, Emily Gebhart, and VRG volunteer, Matt Baker, RN, get ready for festival patrons at Paul’s Place health event in Baltimore, MD.

Another great part of working at this booth was the fact that we were able to reach people from low-income backgrounds who typically would not have access to the information we had to offer. Many showed interest in the Vegetarian Journals, and in the multiple pamphlets about vegetarian and vegan nutrition we had to offer. Some locals were also excited about being able to sign up for our newsletter emailing service.

I’m excited to continue working with the VRG at outreach booths this summer to continue spreading awareness about the vegetarian/vegan lifestyle!

To volunteer at VRG outreach booths, please contact Nina at vrg@vrg.org
To support VRG outreach, please donate at: www.vrg.org/donate
To join The Vegetarian Resource Group, please go to: http://www.vrg.org/member/2013sv.php

Navaal Mahdi is a college student doing an internship with The Vegetarian Resource Group.

Anti-Caking Agent

Posted on April 30, 2015 by Nina Casalena, The VRG Blog Editor

By Jeanne Yacoubou MS, The Vegetarian Resource Group Research Director

Alternate Name: free-flow agent, flow aid

Common Examples: silicon dioxide, dimethylpolysiloxane, sodium aluminosilicate, tri-calcium phosphate, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, cellulose, rice concentrate/extract, sodium ferrocyanide, propylene glycol

Commercial Source: mineral, synthetic, vegetable (cellulose, rice)

Used in: dry mixes (soup, seasoning, cake, pizza, bread and beverage), spices, salt, flour, sugar, shredded cheese, powdered egg, yeast production

Used for: preventing ingredients from clumping together by absorbing moisture or oils/fats or by sealing ingredients against either water or oil

Definition: As a general class of ingredients, there are many anti-caking agents mostly of mineral or synthetic (i.e., petrochemical) origin. They keep food ingredients free-flowing.

Manufacturers:

ACME-HARDESTY

BRENN TAG:
http://www.brenntagnortheast.com/en/pages/Products/Complete_List/index.html#C
http://www.brenntagspecialties.com/en/pages/Markets_IndustriesServed/Food/Stearates/index.html

Huber Materials

Ribus

Peter-Greven: “Our LIGAFOOD® [stearate] products are produced on the basis of purely vegetable raw materials.”

For a discussion on stearates in dry yeast production (starting with Example 1 in “Materials and Methods”): http://www.google.com/patents/EP1499197A2?cl=en

Classification: Vegan*
*NOTE: Stearate compounds could be derived from animal products (lard, tallow) but this is not standard industry practice today in the United States.

For a discussion on calcium stearate as a defoaming agent in sugar production: http://www.vrg.org/vrgnews/2013oct_1.php#s14

Entry updated: April 2015

For information on other ingredients, see: http://www.vrg.org/ingredients/index.php
To support Vegetarian Resource Group Research, donate at: www.vrg.org/donate
Join at: http://www.vrg.org/member/2013sv.php

The contents of this posting, our website and our other publications, including Vegetarian Journal, are not intended to provide personal medical advice. Medical advice should be obtained from a qualified health professional. We often depend on product and ingredient information from company statements. It is impossible to be 100% sure about a statement, info can change, people have different views, and mistakes can be made. Please use your best judgement about whether a product is suitable for you. To be sure, do further research or confirmation on your own.

BALTIMORE

Posted on April 29, 2015 by Nina Casalena, The VRG Blog Editor

Thank you for the many friends and relatives who inquired about us
because of the national news focusing on Baltimore. We are all safe.
The issues in Baltimore are part of many interrelated problems in the
country and the world. We became vegans because of belief in non-violence
to solve problems. This is a hard path, and often there are many arguments
to why violence is necessary. Even if you don’t believe nonviolence
always works, certainly when there is a choice take the path of
nonviolence, in both action and words. This includes being vegetarian/vegan.
Thank you to everyone for caring.

Do vegetarians (vegans, lacto vegetarians, lacto-ovo vegetarians) have to take vitamin B12 supplements?

Posted on April 29, 2015 by Nina Casalena, The VRG Blog Editor

By Reed Mangels, PhD, RD

Vegetarians, just like nonvegetarians, need to have reliable sources of vitamin B12. Reliable sources can include foods fortified with vitamin B12, foods that contain vitamin B12, and vitamin B12 supplements. Fortified foods – foods that have vitamin B12 added to them – include some brands of plant milks, some veggie meats, some breakfast cereals, some energy bars, some tofu, some nutritional yeast, and various other foods. Vegans can obtain their required B12 from just fortified foods, just supplements, or a combination of fortified foods and supplements.

Some vegetarians (not vegans) will choose to get vitamin B12 from animal sources, namely dairy products and eggs. Most multi-vitamins contain vitamin B12 and it is available as a stand-alone supplement also. To find out if a food is fortified with vitamin B12, check the nutrition label – added vitamin B12 will be indicated. If vegetarians’ vitamin B12 intake from food sources is adequate, supplements are not needed.

The table below shows the amount of vitamin B12 in some foods.

Table 1: Vitamin B12 Content of Foods1,2

Food Vitamin B12 (micrograms per serving)
Veggie
“meat analogs,” fortified, 1 oz
1.0-3.0
Soymilk,
fortified, 1 cup
1.2-2.9
Protein
bar, fortified, 1 bar
1.0-2.0
Nutritional
yeast, Vegetarian Support Formula, 1 tbsp
4.0
Marmite
yeast extract, 1 tsp
0.9
Skim
cow’s milk, 1 cup
1.22
Cheddar
cheese, dairy, 1 oz
0.25
Egg,
1 large
0.44
(equivalent to approximately 0.22 mcg due to lower absorption)

Clearly, a person drinking 2 cups of fortified soymilk (2 x 1.2 =2.4 mcg) or choosing other fortified foods could achieve the levels of vitamin B12 recommended by the Dietary Reference Intakes (2.4 mcg/day is the RDA for an adult). The low amounts of vitamin B12 added to fortified foods helps with absorption; 60% of low dose (less than 5 micrograms) of vitamin B12 is absorbed.3

Lacto or lacto-ovo vegetarians may opt to use foods fortified with vitamin B12. They can also obtain sufficient vitamin B12 solely from dairy products (and eggs for lacto-ovo vegetarians). We need to consider 2 issues, namely, the vitamin B12 content of these foods and the absorption of vitamin B12 from these foods. The RDA for vitamin B12 is based on a 50% absorption.3 One study suggests that 65% of the vitamin B12 in cow’s milk is absorbed4 while absorption from eggs ranges from 24-36%.3

If we assume that vitamin B12 absorption from cow’s milk and other dairy products is similar to the average absorption of vitamin B12 from foods that is the basis for the RDA and that absorption from eggs is about half this, we can calculate whether or not dairy products and eggs can be successfully used to meet the RDA for vitamin B12.

Someone drinking 3 cups of cow’s milk (1.22 mcg of vitamin B12/cup) daily would meet the RDA for vitamin B12 (2.4 mcg/day for an adult). (3 x 1.22 mcg = 3.66 mcg). Two cups of cow’s milk would also suffice to meet the RDA.

1.5 cups of milk + 2 ounces of cheese (1.83 mcg + 0.5 mcg) would approximate the RDA. A combination of cow’s milk (and possibly eggs) and fortified foods selected, could also meet the RDA without the use of dietary supplements in the form of vitamin pills.

Of course, there is the consideration that adults aged 51 and older should obtain most of their vitamin B12 from foods fortified with vitamin B12 or a vitamin B12-containing supplement.3 This is a separate issue since it applies to all adults, not just vegetarians.

While several recent reviews5-7 have found a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians, little information is available about dietary or supplement practices of these vegetarians. In areas of the world where vitamin A deficiency is common, we don’t emphatically state that vitamin A supplements are required; instead, we emphasize getting vitamin A from food sources. The same seems to be indicated for vitamin B12.

Some vegetarians (vegans, lacto or lacto-ovo vegetarians) may find that supplements are more convenient; others may prefer to use fortified foods. Vegetarians who use dairy products and/or eggs may prefer these sources. What’s important is to ensure that food or fortified food sources are reliable, are adequate, and are used on a daily basis.

If supplements are used, be aware that the amount absorbed is reduced, the higher the dose of the supplement. About 5% of the vitamin B12 in a supplement containing 25 mcg of vitamin B12 is absorbed.8-10 A lesser amount, 1% or less of the vitamin B12 in a supplement containing more than 100 micrograms of vitamin B12, is absorbed.3,9 Vegan registered dietitians Jack Norris, RD and Virginia Messina, MPH, RD recommend that if vitamin B12 supplements are used, you should take either a 25-100 microgram supplement once a day or a 1000 microgram supplement three times a week.11

For more information about vitamin B12, refer to Jack Norris, RD’s excellent webpage – Vitamin B12 – Are You Getting It?

References
1. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2014. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/nd

2. Mangels R, Messina V, Messina M. The Dietitian’s Guide to Vegetarian Diets, 3rd edition. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2010.

3. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board: Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Folate, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998.

4. Russell RM, Baik H, Kehayias JJ. Older men and women efficiently absorb vitamin B-12 from milk and fortified bread. J Nutr. 2001 Feb;131(2):291-3.

5. Pawlak R, Parrott SJ, Raj S, Cullum-Dugan D, Lucus D. How prevalent is vitamin B12 deficiency among vegetarians? Nutr Rev.2013 Feb;71(2):110-7.

6. Obersby D, Chappell DC, Dunnett A, Tsiami AA. Plasma total homocysteine status of vegetarians compared with omnivores: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2013;109(5):785-94.

7. Pawlak R, Lester SE, Babatunde T. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 May;68(5):541-8.

8. Heyssel RM, Bozian RC, Darby WJ, Bell MC. Vitamin B12 turnover in man: the assimilation of vitamin B12 from natural foodstuff by man and estimates of minimal daily dietary requirements. Am J Clin Nutr. 1966;18:176–84.

9. Berlin H, Berlin R, Brante G. Oral treatment of pernicious anemia with high doses of vitamin B12 without intrinsic factor. Acta Med Scand. 1968;184:247–58.

10. Adams JF, Ross SK, Mervyn L, Boddy K, King P. Absorption of cyanocobalamin, coenzyme B 12, methylcobalamin, and hydroxocobalamin at different dose levels. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1971;6:249–52.

11. Norris J, Messina V. Vegan for Life. DaCapo Press, 2011.

The contents of this posting, our website and our other publications, including Vegetarian Journal, are not intended to provide personal medical advice. Medical advice should be obtained from a qualified health professional. We often depend on product and ingredient information from company statements. It is impossible to be 100% sure about a statement, info can change, people have different views, and mistakes can be made. Please use your best judgment about whether a product is suitable for you. To be sure, do further research or confirmation on your own.

  • Donate

  • Subscribe to the blog by RSS

  • VRG-NEWS

    Sign up for our newsletter to receive recipes, ingredient information, reviews of new products, announcements of new books, free samples of products, and other VRG materials.

    Your E-mail address:
    Your Name (optional):



↑ Top