Lectures 5 & 6: More Vegetarian Categories

Required: review readings from Lecture 4
Recommended: research and see if there are any raw foods restaurants or Jain (a branch of Hinduism) communities with fruitarian food service outlets in your community

*****College Credit People: Are you working on your projects?? See the Course Intro and Lecture 4 for details*****

By the end of this lecture, the student should be able to:
1. Define vegetarian, vegan, pescan, and fruitarian
2. Explain the elements of the raw food movement

And We Still Go On!
We have covered two very important categories of vegetarians, lacto-ovo (simply known as vegetarians) and vegans. If you are providing food services in the US and Canada, or if you are purchasing ingredients or cookbooks, understanding these two categories should stand you in good stead.

The majority of available vegetarian publications and products are aimed towards the vegan and vegetarian audience. People who follow more rigorous forms of vegetarianism, such as fruitarians and raw foodists are about where many vegetarians were 15 or 20 years ago. Not a lot of restaurants, not a lot of commercial products, and not a lot of magazines available to cover their needs.

There are many subcategories of most vegetarians. In this lecture, we will discuss some of the other categories you may encounter. Once again, some vegetarians will not acknowledge all of the following categories or perhaps not agree with the definitions. That's okay-there's room for every opinion.

Pescans: we'll cover pescans fairly quickly, since they are an extremely small group. I have not encountered many pescans in my twenty some-odd years in food service. So, the textbook definition of pescan is a one who excludes meat, except for fish and seafood, in their diet.

Fruitarians: The Jain sect of Hinduism strives to do as little damage as possible to the world (we'll cover more vegetarian religious concerns in the next lecture). As far as diet goes, this translates into following vegan rules and a little more. A fruitarian will not use as food a plant that must be totally destroyed in order to consume it. For example, an apple or a peach would be acceptable, but an onion or garlic would be unacceptable, as the entire plant would have to be destroyed. Fruitarians have a very long history, especially in India, and they have adapted their menus to make eating enjoyable without compromising their principles. Asoefatida is a very pungent spice that can be harvested without killing the entire plant; it is used in place of onions and garlic in fruitarian preparations.

To do more reading on fruitarian practices, go to:

Raw Foodists
I had an opportunity to construct a brochure for a raw foodist group last summer. It was intended to acquaint people with the raw foodist movement, giving some idea of menu construction, recipe ideas and general philosophy. So, here's everything you wanted to know about the raw foods way of eating.

The idea of eating foods in their natural state can be traced to the Natural Hygenics movement of the late 1950's. Dr. Ann Wigmore, the founder of Natural Hygenics, taught that there are enzymes in uncooked and unprocessed foods which have extraordinary health benefits. Cooking and processing destroys many of the enzymes. Dr. Wigmore felt that any temperature over 118 degrees Fahrenheit rendered natural food enzymes ineffective, negating the possibility of obtaining health from the foods we eat.

Today's raw foodists also point out the ecological basis for their lifestyle. By eating only unprocessed, organically grown foods, which are all completely recyclable, they are living in harmony with the Earth and helping to preserve the environment (since plant-based agriculture requires less land and less water and non-cooking requires less fossil fuels).

Enzymes are the basis for the raw foods movement. Raw foodists believe that naturally occurring enzymes present in food aid in the digesting and utilization of foods. Utilizing natural enzymes from raw foods is thought to improve health, increase energy and to cleanse the body of toxins. It is also felt that when cooked food is eaten the body has to produce enzymes for digestion, diverting energy away from other enzymes, which cleanse, heal and build up the body.

When investigating the raw foods lifestyle you will encounter minor variations within the lifestyle, but all raw foods diets are vegan. Some raw foodists use a dehydrator (which reaches temperatures of only 105 degrees) and some people will not use a dehydrator, accepting only sun-dried foods. Live foodists are raw foodists who prefer to use food ingredients that are sprouted (such as seeds, nuts, grains or legumes), organic or fermented or cultured (such as seeds and vegetables). As with any group there are many variations according to personal beliefs and philosophies.

In general, people following a raw foods lifestyle do not eat red meat, poultry, fish or seafood, dairy products, pasta, rice, or cooked or processed foods (such as coffee, soda, cold cereal, sugar, bread, etc.). If ingredients are dried, they are never heated near the 118-degree mark, which would inactive enzymes.

Current Events
If you are interested in raw foods, you can select from many cookbooks, websites and restaurants around the country. Organica, in the Sunset district of San Francisco, offers a living, raw foods cuisine. You'll find cabbage leaves being used as "tortillas" for burritos, milled turnip (turnip put through a ricer or pushed through a sieve) served as "rice," shredded daikon radish used as "pasta," and dried, sprouted buckwheat used for a veggie pizza "crust." Depending on the day, you may find "raw-violi," (daikon radish rounds stuffed with blended nuts), mushroom stroganoff, stuffed portobello mushrooms with a ginger sauce, nut loaf or pasta marinara. Desserts may include carrot cake or fruit-nut tortes. There is no cooking done in the restaurant, only dehydrating. The dehydrator may hold "breads" or "crusts" made from mashed garbanzo beans or sprouted buckwheat. O2 in West Hollywood, California and the Living Lighthouse, in Santa Monica, California also offer a raw foods menu.

The San Francisco Living Foods Enthusiasts Group holds regular meetings and has a "sproutline," (415) 751-2806. For online browsing, try, which includes All Raw Time magazine excerpts and lists recipes and food suppliers. There are many raw foods cookbooks, including RAW: The Uncook Book, written by raw foods chef Juliano (Harper Collins, 1999) and Vibrant Living, written by Natalie Cederquist and James Levin, MD (GLO Publishing, 1993). Raw foods cookbooks generally give guidelines for selecting ingredients, setting up the kitchen and preparation techniques.

Brian Clement, the director of the 60 year old Hippocrates Health Clinic in West Palm Beach, Florida is an advocate of raw foods.

"Raw foods allow us to obtain maximum health from the foods we select," says Clement, "and raw foods can be prepared in such a way that even a non-health seeker can enjoy them."

Nomi Shannon, a gourmet cook and food writer, became a raw foodist ten years ago, when she suffered from an "alphabet soup" of illnesses. As a result of her diet switch she finds her health and energy restored and has written several raw food books, including The Raw Gourmet.

People may come to raw food for philosophical or physical reasons or a combination of the two. Most people who have stayed with raw foods say they have a higher energy level, are sick less often and have a sense of emotional well being.

Getting Started
There is a possibility that you may experience several days of physical "detox" if you decide to go completely to raw foods from your current dietary habits. The symptoms may include fever and sinus draining, which raw foodists attribute to your body ridding itself of previously ingested toxins. This may last from one to three days.

Many people choose to ease into a raw food regimen and others may have some combination of vegan and raw food intake. This will be up to you to determine. If you are not able to bring your meals with you to work or school you may want to research local natural foods restaurants and stores so you can plan your meals away from home.

Kitchen Basics
Forget about microwaves, ovens, toasters and ranges. Your kitchen does not require any hot-cooking equipment. If you have lots of time and are fairly good with a knife, then you will require only a good set of knives, a cutting board and a blender. To save time, a food processor, seed or nut mill (looks like a coffee or spice grinder), a juicer and a food dehydrator can be added to your list of equipment. In addition, keep your eye out for cutting equipment (kitchen supply and Asian markets are good sources), both manual and electric that can cut fruit and vegetables into interesting shapes. For example, the COOKHELP is a hand-cranked slicing instrument with different blades that lets you cut fruit and veggies into ribbons, shoestrings and confetti.

Food dehydrators are used to remove the moisture from ingredients at very low temperatures. Of course, if you have the time and the climate, you can allow you foods to sun-dry. If not, ensure that your dehydrator does not go above 118 degrees Fahrenheit. You can use your dehydrator to make raw breads, burgers, cookies, fruit leather, brownies, and crackers. Look for food dehydrators at kitchen supply, health and natural food and camping outfitter stores.

You'll want to line your dehydrator trays to prevent sticking. Plastic wrap is the least "green," but if you use it, be sure to cut a hole in the center for air circulation. Brown paper bags are the "greenest" material and work well with firmer products (like apples, herbs, carrots or onions). Create your own waxed paper for use with wetter products by coating paper with vegetable oil. Cotton cheesecloth and unbleached canvas can be cut and hemmed into the shape of your dehydrator trays and can be washed and reused. Waxed paper and plastic wrap work best with wet mixtures, such as raw cakes or spreads.

Have lots of containers on hand (and labeling material) so you can chop, blend or puree ingredients ahead of time and store until ready to use.

As with all cuisines, remember good kitchen sanitation practices. Wash your hands and ingredients and sanitize equipment before, during and after preparation and store in sanitized, labeled containers. All perishable foods should be stored at 40 degrees or below.

Going Shopping
Be sure to stock your kitchen with lots of interesting ingredients to create flavorful menus. Fresh fruit and vegetables should be organic and can be used whole or in juice. Ripe bananas are very useful in a raw foods kitchen. Over-ripe bananas can be peeled, pureed and frozen, to be used later as a snack and as an ingredient. Take advantage of seasonal fruit and vegetable prices by over purchasing and dehydrating the produce you won't eat right away. Dried fruit and vegetables can be eaten as is or used in recipes.

Lentils, peas, beans and peanuts are legumes that provide protein, iron and some B vitamins. Dried lentils, mung beans, garbanzo beans, black beans and whole dried peas can be easily sprouts. Experiment with different types of dried beans (we've seen black and white beans, cranberry beans, aduki beans and pink beans recently) for flavor and texture.

Sprouted grains can be used for dehydrated raw breads, cookies, crusts and crackers or eaten as is for a chewy snack. Purchase wheat berries, dried barley, rye berries, millet and oats.

Nuts and seeds are good sources of protein, unsaturated fat, calcium, iron, potassium, and B vitamins. They can be used in making raw milks, butters, yogurt, sauces, and snacks. Have walnuts, almonds, cashews, pumpkinseeds, sunflower seeds, and sesame seeds on hand.

Get to know sea vegetables, available fresh or dried. Sea vegetables, such as nori, arame, agar, and wakame are packed with nutrients and can be used to flavor, wrap, or thicken foods.

Raw foodists use vegetable oils, syrups, juice concentrates, miso and nutritional yeast to flavor foods. Try to purchase cold-pressed, organic oils and store them in dark bottles so they do not oxidize. When purchasing syrups, such as date, rice, maple, and barley, read the labels to be sure that there is no sugar or honey (which is considered to be an animal-based product) added. Select frozen fruit juice concentrates from organic sources with no add sugar. Nutritional yeast is a source of B12 and other B vitamins and is sold in natural foods stores. Do not confuse it with bakers' or brewers' yeast. Miso is fermented soybean paste and can be quite salty. Use it sparingly for flavoring.

Preparation Techniques
Raw foods preparation includes soaking, sprouting, dehydrating, and culturing foods, in addition to the simple combination of whole or chopped foods.

Soaking is thought to increase the availability of nutrients in foods and to make them easier to digest. Dried fruit, such as raisins, cranberries, apricots, peaches, figs, dates, plums, prunes, mango, papaya, and kiwi, nuts and seeds, such as almonds, cashews, walnuts, sunflower seeds, and sesame seeds and grains and legumes, such as oats, barley, lentils and peas can all be soaked with good results. Use filtered water and plan on soaking fruit for 6 - 8 hours, oats for 15 minutes, lentils for 24 hours and nuts for 24 hours. Always use clean covered containers to soak ingredients, and refrigerate prepared soaked ingredients for future use.

When soaking oats, figure 1/4 cup dried oats per portion and use equal amounts of oats and water. One cup of barley, covered with water will yield two portions. Dried fruit should be covered with water, figuring 1/8 of a cup (depending on the type of fruit and usage) per portion.

Sprouting is thought to optimize the nutritional content of the seed that is being sprouted. Some seeds do not sprout well, such as dried corn, oats, barley, cashews, pecan, walnuts, hazelnuts and pumpkinseeds. All others will sprout within one to three days.

To sprout sesame seeds, use 1/2 cup for three servings. For sunflower seeds, use 3/4 cup for three servings. One cup of wheatberries will give approximately three cups of sprouts and one cup of millet will yield about two cups of sprouts.

All sprouting starts with soaking. Rinse items to be soaked and/or sprouted and all to drain. Place in container (glass is best) and measure or cover with filtered water. Cover and allow to soak overnight or until soft. Drain; soaked ingredients are ready at this time. If sprouting, allow jars, tilted at an angle for drainage, to rest in a dark place until sprouts are seen (12 hours to three days). While waiting for sprouts, rinse and drain twice a day.

Culturing (also known as fermenting), is a technique used by raw foodists to allow the growth of friendly bacteria. Airborne yeasts and bacteria help to create fermented "breads" and "wines." Ingredients are soaked and sprouted and then allowed to ferment until the desired level of texture or taste is achieved. For example, raw sunflower seed and raw almonds are finely chopped, blended with filtered water and miso covered and allowed to soak and ferment for eight hours. This creates a nut and seed "cheese" with a liquid "whey" forming on the bottom.

Dehydration can be done in the sun or in a dehydrator. Dehydration is a form of preservation and a means to concentrate flavors and nutrients. Dehydration is a means to concentrate prepared ingredients, such as soaked almonds, chopped dates, ground walnuts and oats, into cookies, crusts, "burgers" and brownies.

Menu Ideas
Here are some suggestions for constructing a raw food menu

Berry and "yogurt" parfait with chopped with chopped walnuts

Banana Smoothie (bananas, apple juice, strawberries, yeast) Green salad with avocado, carrots, sprouts, apples Orange and fennel salad with walnuts shredded beets and cucumbers with onions Mango sections with pecans
Apple cinnamon sprouted wheat cereal Nori Rolls (with cucumbers, avocado, mushrooms) fresh pineapple Spinach salad with almonds and oranges, sprouted lentil salad Sliced kiwis with fresh coconut
Applesauce and berries Stuffed tomato (with sprouted lentils) Fresh snow peas Black beans with bell peppers and onionsBanana chips
Cabbage "burritos" with shopped mushrooms and salsaMillet burgers sliced tomatoes and onions Papaya and lime slices
Mashed mango with banana Borscht with diced carrot and onion Cauliflower and sprouted pea salad Melon balls with mint


1. Beverages

Berried ginger ale
Yield: 2 portions

1 cup cranberry juice (no sugar added)
1/4 cup pureed strawberries
1 teaspoon pureed fresh ginger
1/2 cup sparkling mineral water (natural)

In a tall glass, mix cranberry juice, strawberries and fresh ginger and stir to combine. Pour into two glasses, add mineral water, stir. Add ice if desired

Minted orange tea
Yield: 5 portions

4 bags mint tea
1 quart filtered water
juice of two oranges (approx. 1/2 cup)
2 teaspoons lemon juice
2 teaspoons rice syrup
1 teaspoon fresh lemon zest

Place tea bags in glass jar, add water, cover and allow to steep in the sun for at least 4 hours. When desired strength is achieved, add remaining ingredients, stir and chill until ready to serve. Serve over ice.

Cashew Milk
Yield: 1 1/2 pints

1/2 cup ground raw cashews
2 teaspoons sesame seeds
4 cups filtered water
2 Tablespoons maple syrup
2 teaspoons agar (found in natural food stores, used as a thickener)

In a blender, combine cashews and sesame seeds. Add water and blend until smooth. Add syrup and agar and mix until well combined. Strain into a glass container. Refrigerate until ready to use. Should last in frig for up to three days.

Cashew Smoothie
Yield: 1 portion

1 cup cashew milk
1 ripe, chopped banana
2 teaspoons peanut butter
1/4 teaspoon ground ginger

Combine all ingredients in a blender (for a thicker smoothie, add several ice cubes) and blend until smooth. Serve cold.

2. Breakfast

Raw Foods Breakfast Pudding
Yield: 3 portions

1/2 cup sprouted wheat berries
1/2 cup ripe, mashed banana
1/4 cup soaked cashews
1/4 cup soaked dried apricots or peaches
1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
1/4 teaspoon fresh orange zest

2 cups cored and grated green apples
1/8 cup raisins
2 Tablespoons chopped soaked cashews

Blend all the sauce ingredients in a blender until smooth. Set aside Divide the apples into three serving bowls and pour the sauce over them. Garnish with raisins and cashews. This can also be layered like a parfait.

Breakfast Muesli
Yield: 2 portions

1/2 cup rolled oats
1/2 cup cashew milk
1 Tablespoon soaked dried apricots
1 Tablespoon soaked raisins
2 teaspoon chopped dates

In a glass bowl, mix together oats and milk and soak for 8 hours.
Layer oats and fruit in bowl and serve.

3. Entrees

Barley and mushroom pilaf
Yield: 3 portions

1/2 cup Chopped fresh tomatoes
2 teaspoons miso
2 teaspoons chopped onions
1/2 clove minced garlic
/1/2 teaspoon white pepper

3/4 cup chopped fresh mushrooms (use several types)
3/4 cup sprouted barley (6 Tablespoons of dried barley covered with filtered water for 24 hours will yield cup sprouted barley)
1/4 cup chopped scallions
1/8 cup chopped bell peppers

Garnish: 1 cup tossed baby greens

Blend all the sauce ingredients in a food processor or blender until smooth. Set aside. In a medium bowl, combine all pilaf ingredients. Place greens on serving plates, place pilaf ingredients on greens and spoon sauce over pilaf.

Millet Burgers
Yield: 4 burgers

3 cups sprouted millet (1 cup millet will yield 3 cups of sprouts)
1/2 cup chopped celery
1/2 cup chopped onions
1 cup sprouted wheat berries (1/3 cup berries will yield 1 cup of sprouts)
1/4 cup tahini (or mashed garbanzo beans)
3 cloves minced garlic
2 teaspoons miso
1/3 cup filtered water
1 teaspoon black pepper
1 teaspoon red pepper flakes

In a blender or food chopper coarsely chop all ingredients.
Form mixture into burgers and place on lined dehydrator trays. Allow to dry for 24 hours.
Serve as a burger or crumble on top of salads.

4. Desserts/Snacks

Banana Log
Yield: 6 portions

1 cup mashed ripe bananas
2/3 cup ground almonds
2/3 cup ground oats
1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
1/2 teaspoon nutmeg
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1/2 teaspoon fresh orange zest
3 Tablespoons chopped dates
1/2 cup sprouted millet
3 Tablespoons shredded coconut

In a food processor or blender, coarsely chop bananas, almonds and oats. Add ginger, nutmeg, extract, zest, dates and millet and process to combine.
Pour mixture onto waxed paper and roll into log. Refrigerate for at least 2 hours.
Unroll log and garnish with coconut.

Sweet Oaties
Yield: 8 cookies

1 cup rolled oats
2/3 cup filtered water
1/2 cup sprouted wheat
1 Tablespoon orange juice concentrate
1 Tablespoon apple juice concentrate
1 Tablespoon mashed raisins (to form a paste)
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/2 teaspoon fresh orange zest

Combine all ingredients in a blender or food processor until pureed. Pour onto lined dehydrator trays in various shapes. Allow to dehydrate for 8 hours or until crisp.

On to the Next
So, now we've laid a foundation of vegetarian understanding. The next lecture will discuss some of the religious and political vegetarian issues of the day. We'll then spend the rest of the semester covering vegetarian recipes and menus, ethnic cuisines, products, and vegetarian food service business. Read on!

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Last Updated
January 10, 2001

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The contents of this web site, as with all The Vegetarian Resource Group publications, is not intended to provide personal medical advice. Medical advice should be obtained from a qualified health professional.

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