VEGETARIAN NUTRITION

Please note that the food pyramid below is out of date. You can find the latest food guide at http://www.dietitians.ca/news/downloads/Vegetarian_Food_Guide_for_NA.pdf.

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets (1997)

Scientific data suggest positive relationships between a vegetarian diet and reduced risk for several chronic degenerative diseases and conditions, including obesity, coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancer. Vegetarian diets, like all diets, need to be planned appropriately to be nutritionally adequate.


POSITION STATEMENT

It is the position of The American Dietetic Association (ADA) that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, are nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.


Vegetarianism in Perspective

The eating patterns of vegetarians vary considerably. The lacto-ovo-vegetarian eating pattern is based on grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, dairy products, and eggs, and excludes meat, fish, and fowl. The vegan, or total vegetarian, eating pattern is similar to the lacto-ovo-vegetarian pattern except for the additional exclusion of eggs, dairy, and other animal products. Even within these patterns, considerable variation may exist in the extent to which animal products are avoided. Therefore, individual assessment is required to accurately evaluate the nutritional quality of a vegetarian’s dietary intake.

Studies indicate that vegetarians often have lower morbidity (1) and mortality (2) rates from several chronic degenerative diseases than do nonvegetarians. Although nondietary factors, including physical activity and abstinence from smoking and alcohol, may play a role, diet is clearly a contributing factor.

In addition to the health advantages, other considerations that may lead a person to adopt a vegetarian diet pattern include concern for the environment, ecology, and world hunger issues. Vegetarians also cite economic reasons, ethical considerations, and religious beliefs as their reasons for following this type of diet pattern. Consumer demand for vegetarian options has resulted in increasing numbers of foodservices that offer vegetarian options. Presently, most university foodservices offer vegetarian options.


Health Implications of Vegetarianism

Vegetarian diets low in fat or saturated fat have been used successfully as part of comprehensive health programs to reverse severe coronary artery disease (3,4). Vegetarian diets offer disease protection benefits because of their lower saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein content and often higher concentration of folate (which reduces serum homocysteine levels) (5), antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, carotenoids, and phytochemicals (6). Not only is mortality from coronary artery disease lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (7), but vegetarian diets have also been successful in arresting coronary artery disease (8,9). Total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are usually lower in vegetarians, but high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels vary depending on the type of vegetarian diet followed (10).

Vegetarians tend to have a lower incidence of hypertension than nonvegetarians (11). This effect appears to be independent of both body weight and sodium intake. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is much less likely to be a cause of death in vegetarians than nonvegetarians, perhaps because of their higher intake of complex carbohydrates and lower body mass index (12).

Incidence of lung and colorectal cancer is lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (2,13). Reduced colorectal cancer risk is associated with increased consumption of fiber, vegetables, and fruit (14,15). The environment of the colon differs notably in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians in ways that could favorably affect colon cancer risk (16,17). Lower breast cancer rates have not been observed in Western vegetarians, but cross-cultural data indicate that breast cancer rates are lower in populations that consume plant-based diets (18). The lower estrogen levels in vegetarian women may be protective (19).

A well-planned vegetarian diet may be useful in the prevention and treatment of renal disease. Studies using human being and animal models suggest that some plant proteins may increase survival rates and decrease proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and histologic renal damage compared with a nonvegetarian diet (20,21).


Nutrition Considerations for Vegetarians

Plant sources of protein alone can provide adequate amounts of essential amino acids if a variety of plant foods are consumed and energy needs are met. Research suggests that complementary proteins do not need to be consumed at the same time and that consumption of various sources of amino acids over the course of the day should ensure adequate nitrogen retention and use in healthy persons (22). Although vegetarian diets are lower in total protein and a vegetarian’s protein needs may be somewhat elevated because of the lower quality of some plant proteins, protein intake in both lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans appears to be adequate (16).

Plant foods contain only nonheme iron, which is more sensitive than heme iron to both inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption. Although vegetarian diets are higher in total iron content than nonvegetarian diets, iron stores are lower in vegetarians because the iron from plant foods is more poorly absorbed (23). The clinical importance of this, if any, is unclear because iron deficiency anemia rates are similar in vegetarians and nonvegetarians (23). The higher vitamin C content of vegetarian diets may improve iron absorption.

Although plant foods can contain vitamin B-12 on their surface from soil residues, this is not a reliable source of B-12 for vegetarians. Much of the vitamin B-12 present in spirulina, sea vegetables, tempeh, and miso has been shown to be inactive B-12 analog rather than the active vitamin. Although dairy products and eggs contain vitamin B-12, research suggests that lacto-ovo-vegetarians have low blood levels of vitamin B-12. Supplementation or use of fortified foods is advised for vegetarians who avoid or limit animal foods (24).

Because vitamin B-12 requirements are small, and it is both stored and recycled in the body, symptoms of deficiency may be delayed for years. Absorption of vitamin B-12 becomes less efficient as the body ages, so supplements may be advised for all older vegetarians.

Lacto-ovo-vegetarians have calcium intakes that are comparable to or higher than those of nonvegetarians (25,26). Calcium intakes of vegans, however, are generally lower than those of both lacto-ovo-vegetarians and omnivores (26). It should be noted that vegans may have lower calcium needs than nonvegetarians because diets that are low in total protein and more alkaline have been shown to have a calcium-sparing effect (27). Furthermore, when a person’s diet is low in both protein and sodium and regular weight-bearing physical activity is engaged in, his or her calcium requirements may be lower than those of a sedentary person who eats a standard Western diet. These factors, and genetic influences, may help explain variations in bone health that are independent of calcium intake.

Because calcium requirements of vegans have not been established and inadequate calcium intakes are linked to risk for osteoporosis in all women, vegans should meet the calcium requirements established for their age group by the Institute of Medicine (28). Calcium is well absorbed from many plant foods, and vegan diets can provide adequate calcium if the diet regularly includes foods rich in calcium (29). In addition, many new vegetarian foods are calcium-fortified. Dietary supplements are advised for vegans only if they do not meet calcium requirements from food.

Vitamin D is poorly supplied in all diets unless vitamin D– fortified foods are consumed. Vegan diets may lack this nutrient because fortified cow’s milk is its most common dietary source. However, vegan foods supplemented with vitamin D, such as soymilk and some cereals, are available. Furthermore, findings indicate that sunlight exposure is a major factor affecting vitamin D status and that dietary intake is important only when sun exposure is inadequate (30). Sun exposure to hands, arms, and face for 5 to 15 minutes per day is believed to be adequate to provide sufficient amounts of vitamin D (31). People with dark skin or those who live at northern latitudes or in cloudy or smoggy areas may need increased exposure. Use of sunscreen interferes with vitamin D synthesis. If sun exposure is inadequate, vitamin D supplements are recommended for vegans. This is especially true for older persons who synthesize vitamin D less efficiently and who may have less sun exposure.

Studies show zinc intake to be lower or comparable in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians (16). Most studies show that zinc levels in hair, serum, and saliva are in the normal range in vegetarians (32). Compensatory mechanisms may help vegetarians adapt to diets that may be low in zinc (33). However, because of the low bioavailability of zinc from plant foods and because the effects of marginal zinc status are poorly understood, vegetarians should strive to meet or exceed the Recommended Dietary Allowances for zinc.

Diets that do not include fish or eggs lack the long-chain n-3 fatty acid docosahexanoic acid (DHA). Vegetarians may have lower blood lipid levels of this fatty acid, although not all studies are in agreement with this finding (34,35). The essential fatty acid linolenic acid can be converted to DHA, although conversion rates appear to be inefficient and high intakes of linoleic acid interfere with conversion (36). The implications of low levels of DHA is not clear. However, it is recommended that vegetarians include good sources of linolenic acid in their diet.

Figure 1 below presents food sources of nutrients that are often of concern for vegetarians.

Iron Milligrams per serving
Breads, cereals, and grains
Whole wheat bread, 1 slice 0.9
White bread, 1 slice 0.7
Bran flakes, 1 c 11.0
Cream of wheat, 1/2 c cooked 5.5
Oatmeal, instant, 1 packet 6.3
Wheat germ, 2 Tbsp 1.2
Vegetables (1/2 c cooked)
Beet greens 1.4
Sea vegetables 18.1-42.0
Swiss chard 1.9
Tomato juice, 1 c 1.3
Turnip greens 1.5
Legumes (1/2 c cooked)
Baked beans, vegetarian 0.74
Black beans 1.8
Garbanzo beans 3.4
Kidney beans 1.5
Lentils 3.2
Lima beans 2.2
Navy beans 2.5
Soyfoods (1/2 c cooked)
Soybeans 4.4
Tempeh 1.8
Tofu 6.6
Soymilk, 1 c 1.8
Nuts/seeds (2 Tbsp)
Cashews 1.0
Pumpkin seeds 2.5
Tahini 1.2
Sunflower seeds 1.2
Other foods
Blackstrap molasses, 1 Tbsp 3.3
 

Zinc

Milligrams per serving
Breads, grains, and cereals
Bran flakes, 1 c 5.0
Wheat germ, 2 Tbsp 2.3
Legumes (1/2 c cooked)
Adzuki beans 2.0
Chickpeas 1.3
Lima beans 1.0
Lentils 1.2
Soyfoods (1/2 c cooked)
Soybeans 1.0
Tempeh 1.5
Tofu 1.0
Textured vegetable protein 1.4
Vegetables (1/2 c cooked)
Corn 0.9
Peas 1.0
Sea vegetables 1.1-2.0
Dairy foods
Cow's milk, 1 c 1.0
Cheddar cheese, 1 oz 0.9
Yogurt, 1 c 1.8

Calcium

Milligrams per serving
Legumes (1 c cooked)
Chickpeas 78
Great northern beans 121
Navy beans 128
Pinto beans 82
Black beans 103
Vegetarian baked beans 128
Soyfoods
Soybeans, 1 c cooked 175
Tofu, 1/2 c 120-350
Tempeh, 1/2 c 77
Textured vegetable protein, 1/2 c 85
Soymilk, 1 c 84
Soymilk, fortified, 1 c 250-300
Soynuts, 1/2 c 252
Nuts and seeds (2 Tbsp)
Almonds 50
Almond butter 86
Vegetables (1/2 c cooked)
Bok choy 79
Broccoli 89
Collard greens 178
Kale 90
Mustard greens 75
Turnip greens 125
Fruits
Dried figs, 5 258
Calcium-fortified orange juice, 1 c 300
Other Foods
Blackstrap molasses, 1 Tbsp 187
Cow's milk, 1 c 300
Yogurt, 1 c 275-400
   

Vitamin D

Micrograms per serving
Fortified, ready-to-eat cereals, 3/4 c 1.0-2.5
Fortified soymilk or other nondairy milk, 1 c 1.0-2.5
 

Vitamin B-12

Micrograms per serving
Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, 3/4 c 1.5-6.0
Meat analogs (1 burger or 1 serving according to package) 2.0-7.0
Fortified soymilk or other nondairy milks, 8 oz 0.2-5.0
Nutritional yeast (Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula, formerly T6635a), 1 Tbsp 4.0
 

Linolenic acid

Grams per serving

Flax seed, 2 Tbsp 4.3
Walnuts, 1 oz 1.9
Walnut oil, 1 Tbsp 1.5
Canola oil, 1 Tbsp 1.6
Linseed oil, 1 Tbsp 7.6
Soybean oil, 1 Tbsp 0.9
Soybeans, 1/2 c cooked 0.5
Tofu, 1/2 c 0.4

FIG 1. Food sources of nutrients. Sources: Package information and data from: Pennington J. Bowe's and Church's Food Values of Portions Commonly Used.  16th ed.   Lippincott-Raven; 1994. Provisional Table on the Content of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Other Fat Components in Selected Foods, 1988.  Washington, DC: US Dept of Agriculture: 1988:  Publication No. HNIS/PT-103.  Hytowitz DB, Matthews RH.  Composition of Foods: Legumes and Legume Products. Washington, DC:  US Dept of Agriculture; 1986.   Agriculture Handbook No. 8-16. 

aRed Star Yeast and Products, a division of Universal Foods Corp, Milwaukee, Wisc.


Vegetarianism Throughout the Life Cycle

Well-planned vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy and lactation. Appropriately planned vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets satisfy nutrient needs of infants, children, and adolescents and promote normal growth (37). Dietary deficiencies are most likely to be observed in populations with very restrictive diets. All vegan children should have a reliable source of vitamin B-12 and, if sun exposure is limited, vitamin D supplements or fortified foods should be used. Foods rich in calcium, iron, and zinc should be emphasized. Frequent meals and snacks and the use of some refined foods and foods higher in fat can help vegetarian children meet energy needs. Guidelines for iron and vitamin D supplements and for the introduction of solid foods are the same for vegetarian and nonvegetarian infants. When it is time for protein-rich foods to be introduced, vegetarian infants can have pureed tofu, cottage cheese, and legumes (pureed and strained). Breast-fed vegan infants should receive a source of vitamin B-12 if the mother’s diet is not supplemented and a source of vitamin D if sun exposure is inadequate.

Vegetarian diets are somewhat more common among adolescents with eating disorders than in the general adolescent population; therefore, dietetics professionals should be aware of young clients who greatly limit food choices and who exhibit symptoms of eating disorders (38). However, recent data suggest that adopting a vegetarian diet does not lead to eating disorders (39). With guidance in meal planning, vegetarian diets are appropriate and healthful choices for adolescents.

Vegetarian diets can also meet the needs of competitive athletes. Protein needs may be elevated because training increases amino acid metabolism, but vegetarian diets that meet energy needs and include good sources of protein (eg, soyfoods, legumes) can provide adequate protein without use of special foods or supplements. For adolescent athletes, special attention should be given to meeting energy, protein, and iron needs. Amenorrhea may be more common among vegetarian than nonvegetarian athletes, although not all research supports this finding (40,41). Efforts to maintain normal menstrual cycles might include increasing energy and fat intake, reducing fiber, and reducing strenuous training.

Lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan diets can meet the nutrient and energy needs of pregnant women. Birth weights of infants born to well nourished vegetarian women have been shown to be similar to birth-weight norms and to birth weights of infants of nonvegetarians (42). Diets of pregnant and lactating vegans should be supplemented with 2.0 micrograms and 2.6 micrograms, respectively, of vitamin B-12 daily and, if sun exposure is limited, with 10 micrograms vitamin D daily (43,44). Supplements of folate are advised for all pregnant women, although vegetarian women typically have higher intakes than nonvegetarians.


Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets

A variety of menu-planning approaches can provide vegetarians with adequate nutrition. Figure 2 suggests one approach. In addition, the following guidelines can help vegetarians plan healthful diets.

FIG 2. Food Guide Pyramid for Vegetarian Meal Planning. 
ADA PYRAMID THUMBNAIL The full size pyramid is a 91k file and takes quite some time to download.

The text version of this Food Guide Pyramid follows:

Food Guide Pyramid for Vegetarian Meal Planning
FATS, OILS, AND SWEETS --use sparingly
candy, butter, margarine, salad dressing, cooking oil

MILK, YOGURT, AND CHEESE GROUP
0-3 servings daily*
milk--1 cup
yogurt--1 cup
natural cheese--1 1/2 oz
*Vegetarians who choose not to use milk, yogurt, or cheese need to select other food sources rich in calcium.  For a list of calcium-rich foods, please see Figure 1.

DRY BEANS, NUTS, SEEDS, EGGS, AND MEAT SUBSTITUTES GROUP
2-3 servings daily
soy milk--1 cup
cooked dry beans or peas--1/2 cup
1 egg or 2 egg whites
nuts or seeds--2 Tbsp
tofu or tempeh--1/4 cup
peanut butter--2 Tbsp

VEGETABLE GROUP
3-5 servings daily
cooked or chopped raw
vegetables--1/2 cup
raw leafy vegetables--1 cup

 

FRUIT GROUP
2-4 servings daily
juice--3/4 cup
dried fruit--1/4 cup
chopped, raw fruit--1/2 cup
canned fruit--1/2 cup
1 medium-size piece of fruit, such as banana, apple, or orange

BREAD, CEREAL, RICE, AND PASTA GROUP
6-11 servings daily
bread--1 slice
ready-to-eat--1 oz
cooked cereal--1/2 cup
cooked rice, pasta, or other grains--1/2 cup
bagel--1/2

References

1. Knutsen SF. Lifestyle and the use of health services. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(suppl):1171S-2011S.
2. Key TH, Thorogood M, Appleby PM, Burr ML. Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarian and health conscious people: results of a 17-year follow up. BMJ. 1996;313:775-779.
3. Franklin TL, Kolasa KM, Griffin K, Mayo C, Badenhop DT. Adherence to very low fat diet by a group of cardiac rehabilitation patients in the rural southeastern United States. Arch Fam Med. 1995;4:551-554.
4. Gould KL, Ornish D, Scherwitz L, Brown S, Edens RP, Hess MJ, Mullani N, Bolomey L, Dobbs F, Armstrong WT, Merritt T, Ports T, Sparler S, Billings J. Changes in myocardial perusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography after long-term intense risk factor modification. JAMA. 1995;274:894-901.
5. Janelle KC, Barr SI. Nutrient intakes and eating behavior scores of vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95:180-189.
6. Jacob RA, Burri BJ. Oxidative damage and defense. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63(suppl):985S-990S.
7. Thorogood M, Mann J, Appleby P, McPherson K. Risk of death from cancer and ischaemic heart disease in meat and non-meat eaters. BMJ. 1994;308:1667-2011.
8. Fraser GE, Lindsted KD, Beeson WL. Effect of risk factor values on lifetime risk of and age at first coronary event. The Adventist Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1995;142:746-758.
9. Roberts WC. Preventing and arresting coronary atherosclerosis. Am Heart J. 1995;130:580-600.
10. Melby CL, Toohey ML, Cedrick J. Blood pressure and blood lipids among vegetarian, semivegetarian and nonvegetarian African Americans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:103-109.
11. Beilin LJ. Vegetarian and other complex diets, fats, fiber, and hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(suppl):1130-2011.
12. Dwyer JT. Health aspects of vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;48(suppl):712-738.
13. Mills PK, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE. Cancer incidence among California Seventh-day Adventists, 1976-2011. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(suppl):1136S-2011S.
14. Almendingen K, Trygg K, Vatn M. [Influence of the diet on cell proliferation in the large bowel and the rectum. Does a strict vegetarian diet reduce the risk of intestinal cancer?] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1995;115(18):2252-2011.
15. Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit and cancer. II. Mechanisms. Cancer Causes Control. 1991;1:427-442.
16. Messina MJ, Messina VL. The Dietitian’s Guide to Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications. Gaithersburg, Md: Aspen Publishers; 1996.
17. Adlercreutz H, van der Wildt J, Kinzel J, Attalla H, Wahalla K, Makela T, Hase T, Fotsis T. Lignan and isoflavonoid conjugates in human urine. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1995;59:97-103.
18. Cancer Facts and Figures—1994. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society;1994.
19. Barbosa JC, Shultz TD, Filley SJ, Nieman DC. The relationship among adiposity, diet and hormone concentrations in vegetarian and nonvegetarian postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:798-803.
20. Pagenkemper J. The impact of vegetarian diets on renal disease. Top Clin Nutr. 1995;10:22-26.
21. Barsotti G, Morelli E, Cupisti A, Meola M, Dani L, Giovannetti S. A low-nitrogen, low-phosphorus vegan diet for patients with chronic renal failure. Nephron. 1996;74:390-394.
22. Young VR, Pellett PL. Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59 (suppl 5):1203S-2011S.
23. Craig WJ. Iron status of vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59 (suppl):1233S-2011S.
24. Helman AD, Darnton-Hill I. Vitamin and iron status in new vegetarians. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;45:785-789.
25. Slatter ML, Jacobs DR, Hilner JE Jr, Caan BJ, Van Horn L, Bragg C, Manolio TA, Kushi LH, Liu D. Meat consumption and its association with other diet and health factors in young adults: the CARDIA study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:699-704.
26. Tesar R, Notelovitz M, Shim E, Dauwell G, Brown J. Axial and peripheral bone density and nutrient intakes of postmenopausal vegetarian and omnivorous women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:699-704.
27. Remer T, Manz F. Estimation of the renal net acid excretion by adults consuming diets containing variable amounts of protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994; 59:1356-2011.
28. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Flouride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997.
29. Weaver CM, Plawecki KL. Dietary calcium: adequacy of a vegetarian diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(suppl):1238S-2011S.
30. Henderson JB, Dunnigan MG, McIntosh WB, Abdul-Motaal AA, Gettinby G, Glekin BM. The importance of limited exposure to ultraviolet radiation and dietary factors in the aetiology of Asian rickets: a risk-factor model. QJM. 1987;63:413-425.
31. Holuck MF. Vitamin D and bone health. J Nutr. 1996;126 (suppl):1159S-2014S.
32. Freeland-Graves JH, Bodzy PW, Epright MA. Zinc status of vegetarians. J Am Diet Assoc. 1980;77:655-661.
33. Lei S, Mingyan X, Miller LV, Tong L, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM. Zinc absorption and intestinal losses of endogenous zinc in young Chinese women with marginal zinc intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:348-353.
34. Sanders TAB, Roshanai F. Platelet phospholipid fatty acid composition and function in vegans compared with age-and sex-matched omnivore controls. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1992;46:823-831.
35. Conquer JA, Holub BJ. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid as a source of eicosapentaenoic acid in vegetarians and omnivores. Lipids. 1997;32:
341-345.
36. Emken EA, Adlof RO, Gulley RM. Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labeled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult males. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994; 1213:277-288.
37. Sanders TAB, Reddy S. Vegetarian diets and children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(suppl):1176S-2011S.
38. O’Connor MA, Touyz SW, Dunn SM, Beaumont PJV. Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases. Med J Aust. 1987;147:540-542.
39. Janelle KC, Barr SI. Nutrient intakes and eating behavior scores of vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95:180-189.
40. Pedersen AB, Bartholomew MJ, Dolence LA, Aljadir LP, Netteburg KL, Lloyd T. Menstrual differences due to vegetarian and nonvegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:520-525.
41. Slavin J, Lutter J, Cushman S. Amenorrhea in vegetarian athletes. Lancet. 1984;1:1474-2011.
42. O’Connell JM, Dibley MJ, Sierra J, Wallace B, Marks JS, Yip R. Growth of vegetarian children: the Farm Study. Pediatrics. 1989;84:475-481.
43. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Nutrition During Pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1991.
44. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Nutrition During Lactation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1991.

  • ADA Position adopted by the House of Delegates on October 18, 1987, and reaffirmed on September 12, 1992, and September 6, 1996. This position will be in effect until December 31, 2001. ADA authorizes republication of the position statement/support paper, in its entirety, provided full and proper credit is given. Requests to use portions of the position must be directed to ADA Headquarters at 800/877-2011, ext 4896, or hod@eatright.org.

  • Recognition is given to the following for their contributions:

    Authors:
    Virginia K. Messina, MPH, RD, and Kenneth I. Burke, PhD, RD

    Reviewers:
    Winston J. Craig, PhD, RD; Johanna Dwyer, DSc, RD; Suzanne Havala, MS, RD, FADA; D. Enette Larson, MS, RD; A. Reed Mangels, PhD, RD, FADA; Vegetarian Nutrition dietetic practice group (Lenore Hodges, PhD, RD; Cyndi Reeser, MPH, RD)

    This position paper appeared in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, November 1997, Volume 97, Number 11.



    The Vegetarian Resource Group Logo © 1996-2014 The Vegetarian Resource Group
    PO Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203
    (410) 366-8343   Email: vrg@vrg.org

    The contents of this website and our other publications, including Vegetarian Journal, are not intended to provide personal medical advice. Medical advice should be obtained from a qualified health professional. We often depend on product and ingredient information from company statements. It is impossible to be 100% sure about a statement, info can change, people have different views, and mistakes can be made. Please use your own best judgment about whether a product is suitable for you. To be sure, do further research or confirmation on your own.

    Web site questions or comments? Please email vrg@vrg.org.