Vegetarian Journal's Guide To Food Ingredients

By Jeanne Yacoubou, MS
VRG Research Director

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Vegetarian Journal's Guide to Food Ingredients

INTRODUCTION:
Vegetarian Journal's Guide to Food Ingredients is a partial listing of common food ingredients taken from an ongoing VRG food ingredients project. Our objective in this booklet is to provide an easy-to-read, useful list of ingredients commonly found in many foods and beverages that indicates whether they are vegetarian, vegan, or non-vegetarian. Our Guide is unique in that we place emphasis on the commercial sources of ingredients most commonly used today while mentioning other possible sources of ingredients.

Classification of Commercial Ingredients
Each entry lists commercial sources, alternative names (if any), foods or beverages containing the ingredient, and, in some cases, manufacturers' information about current supply sourcing.

Our classification scheme is as follows:

  • Vegetarian: The ingredient contains no meat, poultry, fish, or seafood, nor any products derived from them or any other part of an animal's (including insect's) body. The ingredient was not processed using animal-derived substances (such as bone char). Eggs and dairy, and substances derived from them, are vegetarian. Insect secretions, (such as honey), are vegetarian.
  • Vegan: The ingredient contains no animal-derived products or byproducts whatsoever. Its processing occurs solely with or by non-animal substances.
  • Non-vegetarian: The ingredient, or substances used to process the ingredient, is derived from meat, poultry, fish, or seafood, or some other part of an animal's (including insect's) body (such as cochineal, rennet or gelatin).

There are cases where both vegetarian and non-vegetarian sources are available for a given ingredient, but some manufacturers told us that they use vegetarian sources only. Since we cannot generalize this to all suppliers, we have classified these ingredients as typically vegetarian, typically vegan, typically non-vegetarian, or may be non-vegetarian, depending on the information received from manufacturers. In this Guide, information received from specific companies is listed with the ingredient's entry, space permitting.

Note: Some manufacturers may produce non-vegan foods on equipment used to produce vegan foods. Non-vegetarian foods may be manufactured on equipment used to produce vegetarian foods. Ingredient classifications in this Guide do not take this into account. Also, this Guide does not consider whether ingredients were tested on animals. For more information on these or related issues, readers are advised to contact the manufacturer directly.

More on Definitions
It is a tedious undertaking to classify the sources of food ingredients for these five reasons:

  1. Ingredients can be composed of multiple parts where each part may be derived from a different source. The common preservative, sodium benzoate, is an example. It contains both mineral (sodium) and synthetic (benzoate) parts. In these cases, both (or all, if more than two are present) sources are listed.
  2. Processing aids, used during the commercial processing of an ingredient, may be unknown or vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. A common example is cattle bone char used to decolorize cane sugar. Consumers can inquire about processing aids when in doubt. In many cases, manufacturers do not have to list processing aids on food labels. Only careful research may reveal their presence. Manufacturers may call them "proprietary."
  3. "Synthetic" ingredients may contain components derived from several different sources such as animal, plant, microbial, or mineral sources. In all cases, the word refers to something that has been created in a laboratory by a chemical process. Since most synthetic ingredients today derive ultimately from petrochemicals, which consist of both decayed plant and animal matter, all synthetics are technically of plant and animal origin. For the purposes of this Guide, synthetic ingredients, except those known to contain non-vegetarian substances as defined in the section above, are classified as vegan.
  4. Non-vegetarian or non-vegan aspects of vegetarian food production exist at the agricultural or transportation level, such as insects inadvertently killed during harvesting or the use of manure or other animal-derived substances as fertilizer on fruit or vegetable crops. Now it is economically unfeasible given current agricultural practices for most companies to ensure that their foods were produced in a completely vegetarian manner. (This situation may change in the distant future because of technological and agricultural innovations and consumer interest.)
  5. Consumers, foodservice and healthcare professionals, dietitians, and food manufacturers always have a changing and expanding knowledge base about how ingredients are sourced and how food ingredients are processed. As information about food ingredient sourcing and processing becomes more readily available, people's perceptions and expectations of what is vegetarian or vegan slowly change. Consequently, consumer demands may evolve while company executives and food technologists may alter their methods and change ingredient sources to meet emerging preferences, needs, and economics.

    For example, consider the transformation seen over the last thirty years with regard to the cheese enzyme, rennet, (once an almost exclusively animal-derived substance to a now largely microbially sourced ingredient in most U.S. domestic cheeses). Some vegetarians once may not have even been aware of rennet in cheese, but now many vegetarians want to know its source and may refuse to purchase or eat animal rennet-containing cheese. The writer observes the same evolution occurring in the case of L-cysteine, now typically extracted from duck feathers, and predicts that it may one day become largely microbially produced. (Now, microbial production of this amino acid is very expensive.)

Commercial Sources
To determine commercial sources, we contacted hundreds of chemical, food, and beverage companies by phone, letter, fax, and email. Sometimes, technical service or sales representatives were very helpful in providing us with information. In some cases, they did not know about the origins of the source materials used to make their ingredients. Often, representatives were unwilling to disclose proprietary information. As a result, some entries in this Guide lack precision or specific company information.

In this Guide, commercial sources will be listed in the order of the most commonly used to the least commonly used, according to the information received from manufacturers. In the case of microbial sources, if manufacturers have not specified whether certain microbial processes are bacterial or fungal, the commercial source will be listed as "microbial." Unless the culture media on which the microbes grow contain animal-derived substances, (and in all cases to our knowledge only vegetable-derived substances have been used), microbial sources are vegan as defined in this Guide.

Food Labeling Issues
Since the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 ruling that mandates labeling of common food allergens, some companies are becoming more transparent about the sources of many of their ingredients. This is true in the case of ingredients containing or derived from milk, egg, fish or shellfish sources, all common food allergens. However, the FDA does not require of manufacturers that all ingredient sources be clearly indicated on labels.

Moreover, there is ambiguity regarding some FDA labeling regulations that presents concerns for vegetarians and vegans. "Natural flavors," which could be either animal- or plant-derived, is a prime example. All readers with questions or concerns about specific food products should contact the manufacturer directly.

It is also the case that some substances, many of which are removed from the final product; remain in minute amounts; or are rendered inactive by a chemical or physical process during production, require no ingredient labeling at all. Many enzymes often fall in this class of substances requiring no labeling.

AUTHOR'S NOTE: A guide to food ingredients is a complicated research project. We thank the following interns who helped compile information: Sina Arnold, Melissa Boynum, Caroline Pyevich, Kathy Schmelter, and Mimi Sistrunk. We also thank the following staff members who provided help with clarity of expression: Eric Hatch, Tamara Richter, Charles Stahler, Darlene Veverka, and Debra Wasserman. Finally, we thank the following people who helped with technical accuracy: Stu Cantor, M.S. (food science and nutrition); Reed Mangels, Ph.D., R.D. (nutrition); Brad Wolff, M.S. (food science).

*Information by and publications of The Vegetarian Resource Group are not intended to provide personal medical advice. Medical advice should be obtained from a qualified health professional.*

This Guide is intended to help consumers shop for vegetarian and vegan food and beverage products. It may also be used as a reference when answering others' questions about food ingredients. The author hopes that this Guide will aid people to make educated food choices depending on their dietary preferences.

This Guide is not intended to discourage anyone about the feasibility of a vegetarian or vegan diet in today's world. It should not be construed as a way to rationalize a meat-centered diet. Most importantly, the author hopes that the Guide will never be used to criticize those who try to maintain a vegetarian or vegan diet in the face of "hidden ingredients," proprietary processing aids, or the use of shared equipment. Please consider this Guide as a source of information needed when making educated food choices.

New information and changes in commercial processes and sources will constantly appear. We will be producing updates. Please send questions and comments for future editions to The Vegetarian Resource Group, P.O. Box 1463, Baltimore, MD 21203. Fax: (410) 366-8804; E-mail address: vrg@vrg.org



Please note: A vegetarian does not eat meat, fish, or fowl. A vegan is a vegetarian who also does not use other animal products, such as dairy and eggs. At the time of this writing, under these definitions, about 3% of the U.S. population is vegetarian and about 1% is vegan. Eight percent say they never eat meat. There are other groups such as those that keep kosher or halal which have an interest in these ingredient issues.

How people follow a diet can vary according to personal beliefs, background, and knowledge. For example, generally vegetarians in the U.S. may eat eggs, while some religious groups do not consider eggs vegetarian. When estimating the number of vegetarians, we follow the general definitions above. However, when individuals decide what foods fit their beliefs, questions may arise because of the "hidden" ingredients in foods and the "processing aids" used in food production.

This guide can be used to help answer some of these questions. It is not meant to discourage people from being vegetarian, to say someone is or is not vegetarian, or to give food service staff and businesses a hard time. That would defeat the goal of vegetarians and vegans trying to create a kinder world. We live in an imperfect world, do the best we can, and strive to do better. We each make different decisions about what is appropriate for ourselves, where to draw lines, and what is practical for our situation.

However, this guide can be used as an aid in meeting your needs or the needs of your clients and customers. To label foods vegetarian, it's best for full disclosure and to make sure all the ingredients are vegetarian. There are some ingredients, which technically may be vegetarian, that many vegetarians or others may not see as vegetarian or not want to use, such as artificial sweeteners or L-cysteine from duck feathers or human hair. These should also be disclosed and avoided when developing vegetarian products.

The contents of this handout and our other publications, including web information, are not intended to provide personal medical advice. Medical advice should be obtained from a qualified health professional. We often depend on company statements for product and ingredient information. It is impossible to be 100% sure about a statement, information can change, people have different views, and mistakes can be made. Please use your own best judgment about whether a product is suitable for you. To be sure, do further research on your own.

acesulfame K

Also known as: acesulfame potassium, Sunette.
Commercial source: synthetic
Used in: dry beverage mixes, canned fruit, chewing gum.
Definition: A low-calorie sweetener.
Vegan

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acetic acid

Commercial source: vegetable
Exists in: many fruits and plants, in milk, and in synthetic form.
Used in: catsup, mayonnaise, and pickles.
Definition: Common preservative and flavoring agent which is the principal ingredient of vinegar.
Vegan

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acid casein

Commercial source: animal (milk-derived).
Used in: cereal and bread fortification.
Definition: Principal protein in milk which has been treated with an acid.
Vegetarian

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acidulant

Commercial source: vegetable, mineral, or synthetic.
Examples: citric acid, lactic acid.
Used in: baked goods, beverages, dry mixes.
Definition: Acids used in processed foods as flavor enhancers or acidity regulators.
Typically Vegetarian

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acrylic acid

Also known as: acrylate-acrylamide resin.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: produce coatings (such as waxes).
Definition: A petroleum-derived chemical used mainly to make plastics.
Vegan

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activated carbon

Commercial source: vegetable (domestic production) or animal (cow bone-derived, foreign production).
Used in: sugar processing, water purification.
Definition: Carbon which can decolorize sugar and absorb impurities from the air and water.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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adipic acid

Also known as: hexanedioic acid.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Exists in: some vegetables, such as beets.
Used in: artificial flavorings in baked goods, baking powder, condiments, dairy products, meat products, oils, margarine, relishes, snack foods, canned vegetables, beverages, gelatin desserts, confections.
Definition: An additive used in foods to impart a tart taste.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Product information: DuPont Chemicals, a manufacturer of adipic acid, reports that oleic acid derived from animal fat is used as a defoaming agent in the production of adipic acid. The oleic acid is present in the final product at a few parts per million. An alternative to this part of the process is thought to be possible but there are no plans to use it.

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agar

Also known as: Japanese isinglass.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: baked goods, ice cream, custard, meringue, and confections.
Definition: A vegetable gum obtained from seaweeds and used to thicken foods.
Vegan

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agar-agar

See agar.

alanine

Commercial source: bacterial, fungal, or synthetic.
Exists in: living organisms.
Used in: seasonings, dietary supplements.
Definition: An amino acid needed by humans which can be produced by the body.
Typically Vegetarian

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albumen

Commercial source: animal (egg-derived).
Used in: pastries, baked goods.
Definition: The spelling for the form of albumin (a protein) which is present in commercial egg white.
Vegetarian

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albumin

Commercial source: animal (egg-, milk-, or blood-derived) or vegetable.
Examples: lactalbumin (milk); legumelin (peas).
Used in: pastries, baked goods, imitation sausage, soups, stews.
Definition: General term for a group of proteins which acts as binders in foods.
Typically Vegetarian

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algin

Commercial source: vegetable-mineral.
Used in: ice cream, icings, puddings, dessert gels, cheeses, soda water, and preserves.
Definition: The name for a class of vegetable gums obtained from seaweed and used to provide thickening in foods. Sodium alginate is the most common.
Vegan

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alginate

See algin.

alginic acid

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: ice cream, beverages, salad dressing, cheese, cheese products, processed foods.
Definition: A derivative of seaweed used in many foods for its jelling and thickening properties.
Vegan

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alpha tocopherol

See vitamin E.

alum

Also known as: potash alum, aluminum ammonium, potassium sulfate.
Commercial source: mineral.
Definition: A general term for ingredients which contain aluminum.
Vegan

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amino acid

Commercial source: animal (usually derived from domestic mammals and birds), vegetable, bacterial, fungal, synthetic. Certain amino acids have a typical source. See individual amino acids for more information.
Examples: alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, cystine, tyrosine.
Used in: baked goods, nutrient supplements.
Definition: The building blocks of proteins.
Typically Vegetarian

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amylase

Commercial source: bacterial, fungal, animal (pig-derived).
Used in: products containing sugars derived from corn, baked goods.
Definition: An enzyme which breaks down starch into a simpler form.
Typically Vegan

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annatto

Also known as: annatto extract, annatto seed, norbixin.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: margarine, shortening, cheese, seasonings, sausage casings.
Definition: A natural yellow-orange food coloring derived from a tree seed.
Vegan

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anticaking agent

Also known as: free-flow agent.
Commercial source: vegetable, animal (cow- or hog-derived)-mineral.
Examples: cornstarch, calcium stearate
Used in: seasonings, table salt, table sugar, powered foods such as instant breakfast drinks, and soft-drink mixes.
Definition: An additive which prevents other ingredients in foods from sticking together.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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antioxidant

Commercial source: Typically vegetable or synthetic.
Exists in: foods containing vitamin C and vitamin E
Examples: BHA, BHT, vitamin E, vitamin C.
Used in: vegetable oils, potato chips, cereals, dehydrated potatoes.
Definition: A class of additives which prevents fats and oils from going bad. A second class of antioxidants prevents cut fruit and vegetables from turning brown.
Vegetarian

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arabic

Also known as: acacia, acacia vera, gum arabic, catechu, Egyptian thorn.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: confections and beverages.
Definition: A vegetable gum with many functions such as thickening foods.
Vegan

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arginine

Commercial source: Typically vegetable.
Exists in: living organisms.
Used in: nutritional supplements.
Definition: An amino acid needed by humans which can be produced by the body.
Typically Vegetarian

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artificial coloring

Commercial source: Typically synthetic. Artificial coloring may be derived from vegetable or animal (insect) sources.
Examples: FD&C Blue #2, FD&C Red #40.
Used in: dry mixes, confections, beverages, candy, ice cream, margarine, meat, meat products, butter, cheese, baked goods, gelatin desserts, cereal, pasta.
Definition: An additive, not duplicated in nature, which gives color to foods.
Typically Vegan

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artificial flavor

Commercial source: Typically synthetic. Artificial flavor may be derived from vegetable or animal sources.
Example: vanillin.
Used in: processed foods, beverages, cereal, salad dressing, baked goods.
Definition: The most common type of food additive which is used to replace or supplement real, more expensive flavors. They contain all or some substances which are not found naturally in the food or beverage to which it is added.
Typically Vegetarian

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ascorbic acid

See vitamin C.

aspartame

Also known as: Nutrasweet, Equal.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: soft drinks, breakfast cereals, desserts, chewing gum.
Definition: An artificial sweetener.
Vegan

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aspartic acid


Commercial source: Typically bacterial or fungal.
Exists in: living organisms.
Used in: aspartame, the synthetic sweetener.
Definition: An amino acid needed by humans which can be produced by the body.
Typically Vegetarian

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autolyzed yeast extract

Also known as: yeast autolyzates.
Commercial source: fungal.
Used in: flavor enhancer, nutrient.
Definition: An extract from yeast which provides a “meaty” flavor to foods.
Vegan

Product information: There are no aspects of the manufacturing process in which substances of animal or animal-derived origin are used, according to FIDCO Inc., a manufacturer of this ingredient.

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baking powder

Commercial source: mineral-vegetable.
Used in: baked goods.
Definition: A powder used as a yeast substitute in baking.
Vegan

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baking soda

See sodium bicarbonate.

beeswax

Commercial source: animal (insect).
Used in: confections, chewing gum, fruit and honey flavorings for beverages, ice cream, baked goods, and honey.
Definition: A bee secretion used to form the beehive and used as a sweetener.
Vegetarian

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beet sugar

See refined beet sugar

bentonite

Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: wine, vinegar.
Definition: A type of clay used as a filter to make liquids clear.
Vegan

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benzoyl peroxide

Commercial source: synthetic-mineral.
Used in: flour, blue cheese, Gorgonzola cheese, oil, fat, milk, styrofoam cups.
Definition: A food additive with several non-food uses as well (in fiberglass, cosmetics).
Vegan

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beta-carotene

Also known as: Provitamin A.
Commercial source: primarily vegetable or synthetic.
Exists in: many animals, in egg yolk, in many fruits and vegetables, especially orange and yellow ones.
Used in: ice cream, cheese, other dairy products, beverages, cereals, vegetable oils, confections, rice.
Definition: A common food colorant which prevents oxygen from changing a food's color or flavor.
Typically Vegetarian

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BHA

See butylated hydroxyanisole.

BHT

See butylated hydroxytoluene.

bioflavinoids

Also known as: hesperidin, rutin, vitamin P complex.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Definition: Natural substances which help maintain cardiovascular health and are commonly found in citrus fruits.
Typically Vegan

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biotin

Also known as: vitamin B factor.
Commercial source: Typically bacterial.
Exists in: liver, kidney, molasses, yeast, milk, egg yolk, nuts, vegetables, grains.
Used as: food fortifier, dietary supplement.
Definition: B vitamin which is necessary for human health.
Typically Vegetarian

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brewer's yeast

Commercial source: fungal.
Used in: nutritional supplements.
Definition: A yeast product which is rich in vitamins, especially B vitamins.
Vegan

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bromelain

Also known as: bromelin.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used as: tenderizer.
Definition: An enzyme extracted from pineapple.
Vegan

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butylated hydroxyanisole

Also known as: BHA.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: cereals, vegetable oil, confectionary products, rice, beverages, ice cream, baked goods, chewing gum, gelatin desserts, potato flakes, dry yeast, dry mixes, lard, shortening, unsmoked dry sausage.
Definition: A common food additive which prevents foods from changing their color or flavor.
Vegan

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butylated hydroxytoluene

Also known as: BHT.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: chewing gum base, potato flakes, dry breakfast cereals, shortenings, enriched rice.
Definition: A common food additive which keeps food from changing their color or flavor.
Vegan

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butyric acid

Also known as: n-butyric acid, butanoic acid.
Commercial source: synthetic or vegetable.
Exists in: several fruits and vegetables such as apples and strawberries, butter.
Used in: artificial flavorings (including butter, butterscotch, caramel, fruit, cheese, and nut flavorings), ice cream, candy, baked goods, puddings, chewing gum, margarine, soy-milk type drinks.
Definition: A preservative which is commonly used as a starting material in the manufacture of other food ingredients.
Vegan

Product information: Penta Manufacturing Co., a manufacturer of this ingredient, reports that butyric acid is produced through a fermentation process. Hoechst Celanese Chemical Group, another manufacturer, reports that their method of producing butyric acid is synthetic, starting with petrochemicals.

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calcium carbonate

Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: antacid tablets, vitamin supplements, toothpaste, confections, wine.
Definition: A substance which is used to make acidic foods less acidic. May be used as a source of calcium or a mild abrasive.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

More information:
Calcium Carbonate in Most Soy, Rice Beverages and in Calcium Supplements Derived from a Mineral Source, not Oyster Shell; Source Does Not Have to Be Labeled

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calcium caseinate

Commercial source: mineral-animal.
Used in: imitation cheese, creamed cottage cheese, diet foods and beverages, frozen desserts, vegetable whipped toppings.
Definition: An additive which is used as a source of protein and as a replacement for sodium caseinate in low-sodium foods.
Vegetarian

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calcium chloride

Also known as: calcium dichloride, E509
Commercial source: mineral
Used in: canned fruits and vegetables, canned beans, pickles, confections, tofu, sports drinks, soft drinks, beer, certain dairy cheeses
Used for: firming, coagulating, sequestering (in foods); replacing electrolytes (in beverages)
Definition: Besides several major industrial uses (deicing roads, oil/gas well drilling) calcium chloride is most often used in foods to keep them firm or in beverages to establish mineral balance.

Manufacturers:

Occidental Chemical Corporation told us by email that no “animal products or animal by-products” are in their calcium chloride.
http://www.oxy.com/OurBusinesses/Chemicals/Products/Pages/CalciumChloride.aspx
TETRA Technologies, Inc. wrote to us that their calcium chloride is “...not derived from animal content.”
http://www.tetrachemicals.com/Products/Calcium_Chloride/Liquid_Calcium_Chloride/FCC_Food_Grade.aqf
FBC Industries, Inc. wrote that their calcium chloride is not animal-derived but from a “natural brine source.”
http://www.fbcindustries.com/Calcium_Chloride.aspx
Coalescentrum Inc. states that there is &ldquo0...no animal ingredient in the product itself nor in the manufacturing process.”
http://www.coalescentrum.com/index_files/Page604.htm
Vegan
Entry added: April 2014

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calcium pantothenate

See pantothenic acid.

calcium phosphates, food grade

Alternate names: monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, E341

Alternate names for monocalcium phosphate: MCP, calcium dihydrogenphosphate, calcium biphosphate, monobasic calcium phosphate, E341(i)

Alternate names for dicalcium phosphate: DCP, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, dibasic calcium phosphate, calcium monohydrogen phosphate, E341(ii)

Alternate names for tricalcium phosphate: TCP, tricalcium diphosphate, tribasic calcium phosphate, E341(iii)


Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: cereals, powdered mixes, breads, baked goods, canned vegetables, fruit jellies, noodle products, spices, energy drinks, dietary supplements, pharmaceuticals, toothpaste.
Used for:anti-caking, leavening, dough conditioning, firming, drying, neutralizing, texturizing, fortifying, whitening and clarifying sugar
Definition: The calcium phosphates include several forms with various functions in foods and beverages especially keeping dry goods free-flowing and making breads and other baked goods rise.

Manufacturers:

Prayon Inc.
http://www.prayon.com/en/our-activities/products/food-applications/others.php
Suqian Modern Chemical Co., Ltd.
http://www.modernchemic.com/Introduction.htm
Vegan

Entry updated: January 2014

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calcium propionate

Also known as: propanoic acid, calcium salt.
Commercial source: mineral-synthetic.
Used in: baked goods, stuffing, processed cheese, chocolate products, cakes, pie fillings, artificially sweetened fruit jelly.
Definition: A preservative which is effective against mold, slightly effective against bacteria, but not effective against yeast.
Vegan

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calcium stearate

Commercial source: mineral-vegetable, mineral-animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: garlic salt, dry molasses, vanilla, vanillin powder, salad dressing mix, meat tenderizers.
Definition: An additive which helps make ingredients blend well together. It also may function as an additive which prevents dry ingredients from sticking together.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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calcium sulfate

Also known as: calcium sulfate anhydrous, plaster of Paris.
Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: baking powder, canned vegetables, baked goods, dessert items, cereal flours, sherry, cheese, toothpaste.
Definition: A common food additive with many purposes such as acting as a firming or jelling agent.
Vegan

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candelilla wax

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used on: vegetables and fruits.
Used in: chewing gum.
Definition: A wax derived from certain plants and used as a produce coating.
Vegan

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cane sugar

Also known as: sugar, sucrose, white sugar, brown sugar.
Commercial source: vegetable. An animal (cow bone) filter is often used in its processing.
Used in: processed foods, fast foods, breakfast cereals, desserts.
Definition: A natural sugar stored in the cane stalk and used as a sweetening agent, flavor enhancer, or preservative.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Product information: The largest cane sugar companies today, Florida Crystals and Imperial/ Savannah, use bone char to process almost all of their sugar. Some types (evaporated cane juice, turbinado, demerera, muscovado, Jack FrostTM brand, SucanatTM, and USDA Certified Organic Sugar) are not processed with bone char.

More Information:
Bone Char-Free Sugar from Florida Crystals – and Domino – Sugar
Non-animal Coal Filters Used to Process Cane Sugar in Australia
Is Your Sugar Vegan?

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capric acid

Also known as: n-decanoic acid.
Commercial source: vegetable or animal.
Exists in: many plants and animals.
Used in: butter, coconut, fruit, liquor, and artificial fruit flavors for the following: beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods, chewing gum, desserts.
Definition: A component of some fats used to make synthetic flavorings.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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caproic acid

Also known as: n-hexanoic acid.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Exists in: many plants and animals, and in synthetic form.
Used in: butter, butterscotch, chocolate, berries, tea, and the following flavorings: butter, butterscotch, fruit, rum, and cheese.
Definition: A component of some fats which is used to make synthetic flavorings.
Typically Vegetarian

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caprylic acid

Also known as: n-octanoic acid.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Exists in: many plants and animals, and in synthetic form.
Used in: baked goods, soft candies, cheese, desserts, gelatins, meat products, oils, packaging materials, snack foods, and synthetic flavorings.
Definition: A component of some fats used as a food additive, especially as a preservative.
Typically Vegetarian

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caramel color

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: soft drinks, baked goods, candy, ice cream, and meats to impart a brown color; beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods, syrups, and meats as a flavoring.
Definition: A common food coloring and flavoring which is usually derived from corn.
Vegan

Product information: Sethness Products Co., the world's largest caramel color producer, uses no animal-derived components in its manufacture of caramel color. Universal Flavors, another caramel color company, also said that they use no animal-derived ingredients in their product.

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carbohydrate

Commercial source: vegetable or animal (insect).
Exists in: whole grains, vegetables, legumes, root vegetables, fruits, honey, and refined sugar.
Examples: glucose, cornstarch.
Definition: An important class of nutrients and a basic source of energy.
Vegetarian

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carmine

Commercial source: animal (insect).
Used in: confections, juices, \93New Age\94 beverages, pharmaceuticals, dairy products, baked goods, yogurt, ice cream, fruit fillings, puddings.
Definition: A food coloring derived from the dried bodies of female beetles.
Non-Vegetarian

More Information:
Alternatives to Insect-Derived Food Colors

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carminic acid

See carmine.
See cochineal.

carnauba wax

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used on: candy, fruits.
Definition: A common produce coating which is derived from a South American plant.
Vegan

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carotene

See beta-carotene.

carotenoid

Commercial source: vegetable or synthetic.
Exists in: many plants and animals.
Used in: dairy products, margarine, shortening.
Definition: A general term for a large class of compounds used as food coloring.
Typically Vegetarian

Product information: Henkel Corp., a large manufacturer of carotenoids, uses the algae D. selina as its source.

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carrageenan

Also known as: Chondrus extract, Irish moss.
Commercial source: vegetable
Used in: dairy foods, pie fillings, chocolate products, salad dressings, confections, evaporated milk, infant formula, instant breakfasts.
Definition: A seaweed product which is a common jelling agent.
Vegan

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casein

Commercial source: animal (milk).
Used in: cereals, breads, imitation cheeses, ice cream, fruit sherbets, special diet preparations.
Definition: The principal protein in milk.
Vegetarian

Product information: Because of its cost-prohibitive nature, casein is not produced in the United States. Most of the U.S. supply comes from New Zealand, Ireland, and European countries.

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cellulose gum

Also known as: CMC, carboxymethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose.
Commercial source: vegetable-synthetic.
Used in: ice cream, frozen desserts, syrups, acidified milk beverages, baked goods, puddings, sauces, tortilla products.
Definition: A chemically modified form of cellulose (the principal component of plant cells) used to prevent ice crystallization in foods.
Vegan

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charcoal

Also known as: activated charcoal.
Commercial source: vegetable or synthetic.
Used in: poison antidotes, medicinal aids.
Definition: A porous material made from coal or wood which is used to relieve diarrhea and intestinal discomfort as well as to counteract poisons.
Vegan

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chelating agent

See sequestering agent.

citric acid

Commercial source: vegetable, bacterial, fungal, or mold.
Exists in: citrus fruits, coffee.
Used in: beverages, canned fruit and vegetables, cheese, candy, mayonnaise, instant potatoes, canned meat, wine, salad dressing, crackers, ice cream, baked goods, chewing gum.
Definition: A common food additive used as a flavoring or preservative, among many other uses.
Vegan

Product information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., a manufacturer of citric acid, reports that they use hydrolyzed cornstarch and molasses as the carbohydrate sources to produce citric acid by microbial fermentation. Cargill, Inc., another manufacturer, reports using corn-derived dextrose.

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clarifying agent

Also known as: fining agent, clarifier.
Commercial source: animal (egg, milk, gelatin, fish bladder protein known as isinglass) or mineral.
Used in: wine, vinegar, soft drinks, beer, fruit juice.
Definition: A substance used to filter small particles out of liquids in order to make the liquids clear.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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cochineal

Commercial source: animal (insect).
Used in: confections, juices, \93New Age\94 beverages, yogurt, ice cream, fruit fillings, puddings.
Definition: A coloring derived from the dried bodies of female beetles.
Non-Vegetarian

More Information:
Alternatives to Insect-Derived Food Colors

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cocoa butter

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: candies and confections.
Definition: The fat obtained from cocoa beans and used most often as a candy coating.
Vegan

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coenzyme

Commercial source: Typically bacterial, fungal, or synthetic.
Exists in: living organisms
Examples: All of the B vitamins.
Definition: A small molecule which activates an enzyme when combined with it.
Typically Vegetarian

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color

Commercial source: synthetic.
Exists in: living organisms, minerals, and synthetic substances.
Also known as: coloring adjunct, color stabilizer, color fixative, or color-retention agent.
Used in: beverages, confections, dry mixes, processed foods.
Examples: FD&C Red No. 3, beta-carotene, iron oxide, beet powder, grape skin extract, riboflavin, caramel, turmeric, carmine, cochineal.
Definition: A food additive used principally to make food look pleasing.
Typically Vegetarian

More Information:
Alternatives to Insect-Derived Food Colors

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corn gluten

Also known as: corn gluten meal.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: specialty foods.
Definition: A protein derived from corn and sometimes used by people who are allergic to other grains.
Vegan

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cream of tartar

Also known as: potassium acid tartrate, potassium hydrogen tartrate, potassium bitartrate.
Commercial source: Typically vegetable-mineral.
Exists in: synthetic form.
Used in: baked goods, crackers, candy, puddings, processed foods, carbonated beverages.
Definition: A thickening or leavening agent usually extracted from wine sediments.
Vegan

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curing agent

Also known as: pickling agent.
Commercial source: Typically mineral.
Used in: processed meats, canned meats.
Examples: sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite.
Definition: A food additive which preserves meats.
Typically Vegetarian

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cysteine/cystine

See L-cysteine/L-cystine.

Datem

Acronym for diacetyltartaric acid esters of monoglycerides. See monoglyceride.

Defoaming agent

Alternate names: defoamer, antifoaming agent, antifoamer, foam inhibitor Commercial source: petrochemical-mineral, petrochemical-vegetable, vegetable, animal
Used in: cane and sugar beet processing; fermentation used to make enzymes, amino acids, etc.; processing of baked goods, coffee, fruit juice, instant soups and noodles and many other products; many industrial applications
Used for: reducing, eliminating or preventing the formation of foam during the processing of foodstuffs (e.g., cane sugar) and during a food or beverage product's manufacture or consumption
Definition: Used widely in many food industries, defoamers control undesirable foam production.

Common Examples:   dimethylpolysiloxane, polysorbate 60, polyethylene glycol,
hydroxylated lecithin, magnesium stearate, fatty acids
Manufacturers:
Organic Defoamer Group http://www.organicdefoamergroup.com/industries/
Emerald Performance Materials http://www.emeraldmaterials.com/cms/spec/page.html?p_name=Foam%20Control%20-%20Food
Typically Vegan
Definition added:  October 2013

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DevanSweet

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: baked goods, confectionery, beverages.
Definition: A granulated brown rice sweetener.
Vegan

Product information: DevanSweet, the creator and manufacturer of DevanSweet, reports that no animal products are used in making it.

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dextrose

Also known as: glucose, corn sugar.
Commercial source: vegetable. An animal (cow bone) filter may be used in its processing.
Exists in: plants and honey.
Used in: corn syrup, processed foods, beverages, confectionery, baked goods, breakfast cereals.
Definition: A simple sugar which functions as a sweetener in foods and drinks.
Typically Vegetarian

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diatomaceous earth

Also known as: kieselguhr.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Definition: A substance composed of algae which is used as a filter in the production of certain waxes, including carnauba, candelilla, and beeswax.
Vegan

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diglyceride

Commercial source: vegetable or animal (cow- or hog derived).
Used in: bakery products, ice cream, beverages, chewing gum, shortening, margarine, peanut butter, confections, whipped toppings.
Definition: A common food additive which is used in conjunction with monoglycerides, the latter of which are used to blend together ingredients (such as oil and water) which normally do not blend together.
Typically Vegan

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disodium inosinate


Commercial source: mineral-fungal, mineral-vegetable, mineral-animal (meat or fish extract).
Used in: powdered soups, spreads, sauces, canned vegetables.
Definition: A common flavor enhancer.
Typically Vegan

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distillation

Used in: petroleum refining and extractions of substances from natural sources.
Definition: A procedure used to separate the components of a mixture.

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distilled vinegar

Also known as: white vinegar, white distilled vinegar, spirit vinegar, grain vinegar.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: mayonnaise, salad dressing.
Definition: A common flavoring and preservative made by the fermentation of distilled alcohol.
Vegan

Production information: The Vinegar Institute, an association of vinegar manufacturers, says that only mineral or synthetic filters are used to clarify vinegar.

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dough conditioner

Also known as: dough strengthener, yeast food.
Commercial source: Typically mineral. May be derived from animal, vegetable, or synthetic sources.
Examples:: benzoyl peroxide, potassium bromate, calcium sulfate, glyceryl monostearate, monocalcium sulfate, locust (carob) bean gum.
Definition: An additive used to make dough easier to handle and more palatable.
Typically Vegetarian

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drying agent

Commercial source: Typically vegetable.
Used in: chewing gum.
Examples: specially dried cornstarch, anhydrous dextrose.
Definition: A food additive which absorbs moisture from other food ingredients.
Typically Vegetarian

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E number

A number code for food additives approved for use in the EU. E numbers appear frequently on food labels in the EU and increasingly, though still infrequently, on North American packaging.
See: A Swiss Company Writes...How Can Zein Be Approved for Food Use in the European Union? What Are E Numbers?

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)

Alternate names: disodium salt of EDTA, calcium disodium salt of EDTA (and many other similar names)
Commercial source: petrochemical (synthetic) and mineral
Used in: food (esp. canned beans and dressings), beverages (esp. carbonated), cosmetics and personal care products, many industrial applications
Used for: sequestering metal ions, stabilizing texture, retaining color
Definition: A chemical primarily used in non-food applications. In processed food and beverages it removes (i.e., sequesters) through binding (i.e., chelating) trace metal ions preventing rancidity, discoloration, or crystal development.
Major Manufacturer: Dow Chemical Company http://www.dow.com/productsafety/finder/edta.htm
Vegan
Definition added: October 2013

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emulsifier

Also known as: surface acting agent, surfactant, wetting agent.
Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, animal (cow- or hog-derived, eggs, milk).
Exists in: living organisms.
Used in: processed foods, shortening, margarine, peanut butter, dry mixes, ice cream, soft drinks, some dairy products, candy, pickles, nondairy creamer, chocolate, baked goods.
Examples:: mono- and diglycerides, lecithin, propylene glycol mono-stearate, polysorbates 60, 65, and 80, calcium stearoyl-2-lactylate.
Definition: A large class of food additives which helps unlike ingredients (e.g., water and oil), mix and stay mixed.
Typically Vegetarian

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enzyme

Commercial source: bacterial, fungal, vegetable, or animal (cow- or hog-derived). Certain food uses rely on one source more than others. See entries on individual enzymes for more information..
Used in: baked goods, cheese, foods containing sugars derived from corn, meat tenderizers.
Examples:: lactase, lipase, papain, pectinase, protease, rennet, trypsin.
Definition: A protein added to foods as a modifier.
Typically Vegetarian

Product information: Most companies today, including Chr. Hansen, Cargill, and Danisco, told us that they produce enzymes from microbial fermentation using bacteria or fungi growing on all-vegetable based media. Employees of the companies state that the microbial product can be more easily purified and its quality as well as quantity more readily assured, unlike the supply of animal enzymes. One exception is a class of enzymes called lipases (used in some cheese production) which remains largely animal- (hog) derived. An employee from AB Enzymes told us that most enzymes used in baked goods are all-vegetable based produced from microbial fermentation. Most microbially-produced enzymes are certified kosher and halal. In some cases, enzymes do not have to be labeled as ingredients.

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essential oil

Also known as: light oil.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: pickles, processed meats.
Examples: oil of clove, oil of cumin.
Definition: An additive derived from plants and used primarily as a flavoring.
Vegan

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ethanol

See ethyl alcohol.

ethyl alcohol

Also known as: ethanol, grain alcohol.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Exists in: synthetic form.
Used in: candy, beverages, ice cream, baked goods, liquors, beer, wine, sauces, gelatin desserts, pizza crust, vanilla extract.
Definition: A basic ingredient in many foods which dissolves other ingredients or makes beverages alcoholic.
Vegan

Product information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., one of the world's leading producers of this substance, derives it from corn.

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ethyl vanillin

See vanillin.

fat

Commercial source: vegetable or animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Exists in: many foods, especially eggs, dairy, meat, nuts and seeds, and synthetic form.
Examples: lard, tallow, palm oil, soybean oil, cocoa butter.
Definition: One of the three classes of nutrients necessary for human health.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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fatty acid

Commercial source: animal (cow- or hog-derived), vegetable, or synthetic.
Exists in: many foods, especially oils.
Examples: palmitic acid, stearic acid.
Definition: A major component of fats.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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fermentation

Used in: the commercial manufacture of many food ingredients, such as lactic and citric acids, and ethyl alcohol.
Definition: A chemical breakdown of carbohydrates through the action of bacteria, molds, and yeasts.

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fermentation aid

Also known as: malting aid.
Commercial source: vegetable, animal (milk-derived sugar or protein), mineral, or synthetic. The sugar may have been processed through a cow bone filter.
Examples: calcium phosphate, potassium bromate, malt, sugar.
Definition: An additive which promotes fermentation.
Typically Vegetarian

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fining agent

See clarifying agent.

firming agent

Commercial source: Typically mineral.
Examples: calcium salts, aluminum sulfate.
Definition: A firming agent is a type of additive which produces desirable crispness or texture in foods, such as cut fruits and vegetables.
Typically Vegan

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flavor enhancer

Commercial source: animal (meat or fish extract), or vegetable.
Examples: soy sauce, monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate.
Definition: An additive which makes foods more flavorful, but which has little or no flavor of its own.
Typically Vegetarian

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foaming agent

Also known as: whipping agent.
Commercial source: Typically animal (dairy)-mineral.
Examples: sodium caseinate.
Definition: An additive used to make foods foam or to maintain foamy peaks.
Typically Vegetarian

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folic acid

Also known as: folacin, pteroyl glutamic acid.
Commercial source: Typically fungal or synthetic; may be animal- or vegetable-derived.
Exists in: liver, yeast, mushrooms, green leafy vegetables.
Used in: enriched foods such as flour, baked goods, rice, and macaroni.
Definition: A member of the B-vitamin complex which aids in the formation of red blood cells and is essential in normal metabolism.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: Schiff Products Inc., a manufacturer of folic acid, reports that its folic acid is derived from either liver or yeast extract.

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fructose

Also known as: levulose, fruit sugar, natural sugar.
Commercial source: Typically vegetable, (possibly sugar filtered through a cow bone filter); or animal (insect).
Exists in: many fruits, honey.
Used in: baked goods, beverages, ice cream.
Definition: A sweetener usually derived from corn, sugar beets, or sugar cane.
Typically Vegetarian

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fumaric acid

Commercial source: animal, vegetable, synthetic. Commercial use is usually synthetic or corn.
Used in: beverages, baked goods, gelatin desserts, confections, dry mixes, jelly, candy, salt substitutes.
Definition: An additive which could have several functions in foods or beverages, such as being an artificial flavoring.
Vegan

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gelatin

Commercial source: animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: Puddings, yogurt, ham coatings, marshmallows, sour cream, frozen desserts, cheese spreads, soft drinks, pill capsules, wine and juice.
Definition: An animal protein used especially for its thickening and gelling properties.
Non-Vegetarian

Product information: "Vegetable gelatins," which are not gelatin at all, are vegetable or synthetic substances that mimic some of the properties of gelatin. According to an employee at Vyse Gelatin Co., soft gel capsules usually contain a mixture of pig- and beef-derived gelatin. Pig-derived gelatin is certified kosher by some kosher agencies.

Great Lakes Gelatin for Business General Information
\93No Gelatin\94 State Leading Apple Juice Companies
View information about gelatin in Skittles™
View information about the future of the gelatin market

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gellan gum

Commercial source: bacterial fermentation on a corn medium
Used in: food, beverages, personal care and oral care products, household cleaners

Used for: Gelling, texturizing, stabilizing, suspending, film-forming and structuring
Definition: a water-soluble carbohydrate usually mainly as a thickener in beverages; also found in nature

Major Manufacturers: CP Kelco http://www.cpkelco.com/products-gellan-gum.html

Classification: Vegan

Definition added: August 2013

glucose

See dextrose.

glutamic acid

Commercial source: Typically vegetable.
Exists in: living organisms.
Used in: processed foods, beer.
Definition: An amino acid used primarily as a flavor enhancer.
Typically Vegetarian

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gluten

See wheat gluten, corn gluten.

glyceride

Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, or animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: bakery products, beverages, ice cream, chewing gum, peanut butter, shortening, chocolate, whipped toppings, candy, frozen desserts, jelly, and margarine.
Definition: A common food additive used principally to blend together, and keep together, ingredients which normally do not mix well, such as oil and water.
Typically Vegan

Product information: Employees of Riken Vitamin (in 2007) and Caravan Ingredients (in 2009) told us that almost all glycerides today (both mono- and diglycerides) are produced from vegetable sources although some are sourced from animal fats. The most common sources are soybean oil and palm oil. Most companies surveyed use vegetable sources to manufacture the majority (over 80%) of glycerides in human foods. Animal sources are often used for industrial and pet food applications but some may be used to make human foods. Employees at Caravan Ingredients told us that their kosher-certified glycerides are all-vegetable. In the case of synthetic glycerides, glycerin (often from vegetable sources) is a common starting material.

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glycerin

See glycerol.

glycerine

See glycerol.

glycerol

Also known as: glycerine or glycerin.
Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: marshmallows, candy, confections, gelatin desserts, soft drinks, some meat products, and baked goods.
Definition: Glycerol is most often used as a component to make glycerides. It helps to extend shelf-life by retaining moisture.
Typically Vegan

Product information: The Director of Sales in glycerol at Cargill, a major manufacturer of glycerol, told us that they use only soybean oil. Dow Chemical Co. reports that its synthetic glycerol has propylene (a petrochemical) as one of its starting materials.

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glycine

Commercial source: Typically vegetable.
Exists in: living organisms.
Used as: sweetener, dietary supplement, antacid.
Definition: An amino acid which is needed by humans and produced by the body.
Typically Vegetarian

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guar gum

Also known as: guaran, guar flour.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: ice cream, baked goods, sauces, beverages, pudding, salad dressing, frozen fruit, artificial toppings, processed meats, cheese spreads, dry mixes, soy milk.
Definition: A common and versatile vegetable gum often used to thicken products.
Vegan

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gypsum

See calcium sulfate.

hexanoic acid

See caproic acid.

high fructose corn syrup

Also known as: HFCS, glucose-fructose, glucose-fructose syrup, fructose-glucose syrup
Commercial source: corn
Used in: soft drinks, juice, bread, cereal, granola bars, yogurt, soup, condiments, confections, desserts, ice cream, pharmaceuticals
Used as: sweetener, texturizer, anti-crystallization agent
Definition: A mixture of simple sugars glucose and fructose, HFCS is produced by microbial enzymes that convert some glucose to fructose. The major types of HFCS contain roughly equal amounts of glucose and fructose.

Manufacturers:

ADM

http://www.adm.com/en-US/products/food/sweeteners/Pages/default.aspx

According to ADM, their high fructose corn syrups “...do not contain, and are not processed, with any animal products, by-products, or any animal derived products.”

TATE & LYLE

http://www.tateandlyle.com/ingredientsandservices/chooseaningredientorservice/americas/pages/liquidcornsweeteners.aspx

According to Tate & Lyle, their high fructose corn syrups: “...do not contain any ingredient of animal origin. The processing aid used to produce these products is not derived from animal origins.”

Ingredion

http://sw.ingredion.us/Ingredients/sweeteners/Pages/Nutritive.aspx

According to Ingredion, “We do not create product from cane sugar or animal-derived processes.”

Classification: Vegan
Entry added: May 2014

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honey

Commercial source: animal (insect).
Used in: baked goods, confections, cakes.
Definition: A sweet, syrupy liquid produced by bees.
Vegetarian

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humectant

Also known as: moisture-retention agent, hydroscopic agent, water-retaining agent, antidusting agent.
Commercial source: Typically vegetable, mineral, or synthetic.
Examples: sorbitol, propylene glycol.
Used in: shredded coconut, icing, baked goods, chocolate, ice cream, candy, jelly, soft drinks, diet food.
Definition: An additive which prevents food from losing water and becoming brittle.
Typically Vegetarian

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hydrogenation

Definition: A common chemical reaction used in the manufacture of many food items containing fats or oils, such as margarine and shortening. This reaction is used to make these food items solids at room temperature.

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hydrogen peroxide

Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: milk, cheese, butter, tripe, powdered eggs, juice packs.
Definition: A common substance used as a disinfectant and to make foods white.
Vegan

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invert sugar

Also known as: inversol, colorose.
Commercial source: vegetable. If the sugar was derived from sugar cane, a cow bone filter was most likely used in the manufacturing process. Invert sugar derived from sugar beets has not been processed through a cow bone filter. (See product information under sucrose).
Used in: candy, baked goods, icing.
Definition: A sweetener with water-retaining properties derived from sugar cane or sugar beets.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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invert sugar syrup

Also known as: sugar syrup, invert.
Commercial source: vegetable. If the sugar was derived from sugar cane, a cow bone filter was most likely used in the manufacturing process. Invert sugar derived from sugar beets has not been processed through a cow bone filter. (See product information under sucrose).
Used in: soft drinks.
Definition: A mixture of mostly simple sugars which is sweeter than ordinary table sugar.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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isinglass

Commercial source: animal (fish).
Used in: wine.
Definition: A protein derived from the bladder of a fish and used to make some wines (especially white wine and chardonnay) clear.
Non-Vegetarian

More Information:
Guinness' Fish Bladder Problem: Ingredient Used In Brewing Process Means It's Not Quite Vegetarian
Hey Vegans! There May Be Fish Bladder in Your Guinness

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keratin

Commercial source: Typically animal (poultry).
Definition: An extremely tough material made of protein which composes the hair, nails, and horny tissue of many animals. Keratin is the primary commercial source of the amino acid, tyrosine. (See tyrosine).
Non-Vegetarian

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L-cysteine/L-cystine

Commercial Source: animal (duck feathers, human hair), synthetic, bacterial.
Exists in: living organisms.
Used in: baked goods, flavors, food supplements.
Definition: An amino acid needed by humans which can be produced by the human body. It must be consumed in the diet.

Product information: A small quantity of L-cysteine is used as a dough conditioner in most bread products. Approximately 80% of all L-cysteine used today is duck feather-derived. More expensive synthetic (Ajinomoto) or bacterial (Wacker biochem Corp) forms are commercially available. L-cysteine does not have to be labeled as an ingredient in all cases.

More Information:
Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About L-Cysteine But Were Afraid to Ask
Information about L-cysteine
L-Cysteine in Bread Products Still Mostly Sourced from Human Hair, Duck Feathers, Hog Hair (March 9, 2011)

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lactalbumin

See albumin

lac-resin

Also known as: shellac.
Commercial source: animal (insect).
Used on fruit, candy, pills.
Definition: An insect secretion used as a produce coating in combination with a wax. This substance is collected from the trees where the beetles deposited the shellac.
Vegetarian

More Information:
View additional information about lac-resin
View additional information about lac-resin on coffee beans
View additional information about zein

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lactase

Commercial source: Typically fungal.
Exists in: all living organisms which digest milk.
Used in: milk products, dietary supplements.
Definition: An enzyme which digests the milk sugar, lactose.
Typically Vegetarian

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lactic acid

Also known as: butyl lactate, ethyl lactate.
Commercial source: microbial or vegetable.
Used in: cheese, cheese spreads, butter, beverages, beer, salad dressing mixes, confections, breads, olives, frozen desserts, jellies, jams.
Definition: A common additive which has several functions such as flavoring agent or preservative.
Typically Vegan

Product information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., a manufacturer of lactic acid, reports that they use hydrolyzed cornstarch only. Purac America, Inc. says that they use beet sugar as the fermentation medium.

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lactose

See carbohydrate.

lard

Also known as: lard oil, pork fat, pork oil.
Commercial source: animal (hog).
Used in: refried beans, chewing gum, baked goods, processed foods, maple syrup production.
Definition: Always of animal origin, lard is the purified, internal fat from the stomach of the hog.
Non-Vegetarian

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leavening agent

Also known as: leavener.
Commercial source: Typically fungal, mineral.
Used in: baked goods, flour, cake mixes, beer, wine.
Examples: yeast, monocalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate.
Definition: A food additive which releases gas into foods, lightening the texture. In beer and wine, the leavener (yeast) is responsible for the chemical reaction which produces the alcohol.
Typically Vegan

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lecithin

Commercial source: Typically vegetable.
Exists in: egg yolks, the tissues and organs of many animals, some vegetables such as soybeans, peanuts, and corn.
Used in: breakfast cereals, confections, margarine, baked goods, chocolate, frozen desserts, rendered animal fat, vegetable fat-animal fat blends, soft drinks.
Definition: A substance commonly used in foods which are high in fats and oils in order to make dissimilar substances, such as oil and water, blend and/or stay blended.
Typically Vegan

Product information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., a major manufacturer of lecithin, extracts it from soybeans.

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levulose

See fructose.

lime

Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: fortified foods, mineral supplements.
Definition: A calcium-containing compound which is the major commercial source of calcium in food additives.
Vegan

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lipase

Commercial source: animal (typically hog- or cow-derived), fungal.
Used in: cheese, cheese products, margarine, ice cream, cream, chocolate confections.
Definition: The general term for enzymes which break down fats.
Typically Non-Vegetarian

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More Information:
Update on Lipases

locust bean gum

Also known as: St. John's bread, carob bean gum.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: beverage flavorings, ice cream, candy, baked goods, gelatin desserts, pie fillings, barbeque sauce, whipped foods, cheese products, icings, toppings.
Definition: A vegetable gum derived from the seeds of the carob tree.
Vegan

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Lutein

Alternate names: luteine, vegetable lutein, vegetable luteol, E161b
Commercial source: marigold, paprika (may be sold as a powder microencapsulated in gelatin)
Found in: green leafy vegetables, yellow-orange fruits and vegetables, egg yolk
Used in: dietary supplements, infant formula, beverages
Used as: nutritional supplement, colorant
Definition: A xanthophyll (oxycarotenoid) believed important for eye health, lutein cannot be synthesized by the human body but must be consumed in foods. Unlike another carotenoid beta-carotene, lutein does not exhibit pro-vitamin A activity.

Manufacturers:

Kemin
told us that their lutein product is \93free of animal ingredients as well as animal-derived processing aids.\94 It is also \93free of bovine gelatin and has been for several years now\94
(http://www.dsm.com/markets/foodandbeverages/en_US/products/carotenoids/flora-glo-lutein.html).
Omniactives
told us that their product \93contains no animal products.\94 They do not offer a gelatin encapsulated form.
BASF
told us that they do manufacture \93two...powder forms with gelatin and one is gelatin-free.\94
Fenchem Biotek Ltd.
told us that they \93can supply lutein available as microencapsulated powders in gelatin.\94
Typically Vegan
Entry added: August 2014

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magnesium stearate

Commercial source: mineral-vegetable or mineral- animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: candy, sugarless gum, pharmaceutical tablets.
Definition: An additive which may be used as a preservative, or as a substance which blends together ingredients which do not normally blend (such as oil and water).
May Be Non-Vegetarian

maleic acid

Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: foods containing fats and oils, antihistamines.
Definition: A preservative which is similar in form to malic acid. (See malic acid).
Vegan

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malic acid

Also known as: apple acid.
Commercial source: Usually synthetic.
Exists in: many fruits.
Used in: frozen dairy products, beverages, soft drinks, puddings, baked goods, confections, artificially sweetened fruit, jelly and jam preserves, butter, wine.
Definition: An additive used as a flavor or acidifier in foods and drinks.
Vegan

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malt

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: breakfast cereals, baked goods, pharmaceuticals, confections, ale, beer.
Definition: A substance derived from barley and used widely in the brewing industry.
Vegan

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malt extract

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: breakfast cereals, baked goods, pharmaceuticals, confections, ale, beer, meat tenderizers.
Definition: A substance obtained from malt and used as a flavor and sweetener.
Vegan

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maltodextrin

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: candies (particularly chocolate), beverages, crackers, puddings, baked goods.
Definition: A modified food starch which may be used to give body to foods.
Vegan

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maltol

Commercial source: vegetable.
Exists in: chicory, cocoa, coffee, cereals, roasted malt.
Used in: artificial flavorings in beverages, ice cream, candy, baked goods, gelatin desserts, chewing gum, and jelly.
Definition: A sugar alcohol which has no flavor of its own but which enhances the flavor of other ingredients.
Vegan

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maltose

Also known as: malt sugar.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: baked goods, instant foods, pancake syrup.
Definition: A sugar used in diabetic foods and in brewing.
Vegan

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mannitol

Also known as: malt sugar.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Exists in: many plants.
Used in: chewing gum, candy, cereal, sugarless products.
Definition: Derived from seaweed, corn, or sugar, mannitol is a sweet alcohol.
Vegan

Product information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., a producer of mannitol, uses cornstarch to make it.

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maple sugar

Commercial source: vegetable. Sometimes (especially by small-scale, traditional producers), the maple syrup is treated with a very small amount of animal (cow or hog) fat, or a dairy product, such as butter or cream. Most modern producers use synthetic compounds in order to reduce foaming during production.
Used in: pancake syrup, breakfast cereal, candy.
Definition: The dry form of maple syrup.
Typically Vegan

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maple syrup

Commercial source: vegetable. Sometimes (especially by small-scale, traditional producers), the maple syrup is treated with a very small amount of animal (cow or hog) fat, or a dairy product, such as butter or cream. Most modern producers use synthetic compounds in order to reduce foaming during production.
Used in: pancake syrup, breakfast cereal, candy.
Definition: A tree-derived sweetener in liquid form.
Typically Vegan

Product information: Spring Tree, Maple Groves, and Holsum Foods brands of pancake syrups do not use an animal-derived defoaming agent during their production.

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methyl paraben

Also known as: Methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate.
Commercial Source: synthetic.
Used in: diet foods, fats, oils, frozen desserts, milk products, baked goods, jelly and preserves.
Definition: A common food preservative.
Vegan

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mineral oil

Also known as: white oil.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: pill and flavor capsules.
Used on: fruits and vegetables.
Definition: A very refined and purified petroleum product commonly used as a produce coating.
Vegan

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modified foodstarch

See modified starch.

modified starch

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: desserts, pie fillings, sauces, gravies.
Example: maltodextrin.
Definition: Starch (typically from corn) which has been chemically and physically altered. Animal-derived oleic acid is often used in the manufacture of adipic acid, the latter of which is a common chemical used to modify the starch.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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molasses

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: baked goods, confections, ice cream, medicines.
Definition: A thick brown syrup which is a by-product of the sugar cane and sugar beet industries. Molasses intended for human consumption has not been filtered through bone char.
Vegan

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monoglyceride

Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, or animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: bakery products, beverages, ice cream, chewing gum, shortening, whipped toppings, margarine, confections.
Definition: A common food additive used to blend together ingredients, such as oil and water, which normally do not blend together.
Typically Vegan

Production information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., a large manufacturer of monoglycerides, reports that they use soybean oil.

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monosodium glutamate (MSG)

Also known as: Accent, Zest.
Commercial source: mineral-vegetable.
Exists in: seaweed, soybeans, sugar beets.
Used in: condiments, dry mixes, pickles, soups, candy, baked goods, meat and spice flavorings, canned vegetables, bouillon, processed fish, frozen foods, canned meat, salad dressings, mayonnaise, potato chips.
Definition: A common flavor enhancer.
Vegan

Production information: Ajinomoto USA, Inc. and Archer Daniels Midland Co., two large manufacturers of MSG, use corn-derived glucose as their carbohydrate source.

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MSG

See monosodium glutamate.

myristic acid

Also known as: n-tetradecanoic acid.
Commercial source: Typically animal (cow- or sheep-derived).
Exists in: most animal and vegetable fats.
Used in: butter, butterscotch, chocolate, cocoa and fruit flavorings for beverages, ice cream, candy, gelatin desserts, baked goods.
Definition: A component of fats used in the food and personal care products industries.
Typically Non-Vegetarian

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natural coloring

Commercial source: Typically vegetable, sometimes animal (insect).
Used in: beverages, dry mixes, confections, processed foods, ice cream, margarine, baked goods, cereal, pasta.
Examples: annatto, turmeric, paprika, beet, carmine, cochineal.
Definition: An additive usually extracted from plant sources which imparts color to foods and beverages which naturally have those colors.
Typically Vegan

More Information:
Alternatives to Insect-Derived Food Colors

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natural flavor

Commercial source: animal (meat, fish, fowl, eggs, or dairy), or vegetable.
Used in: processed foods, beverages, cereals, salad dressing, condiments, baked goods.
Definition: An additive derived from plant or animal sources which imparts flavor.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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niacin

Also known as: nicotinic acid, nicotin-amide, niacinamide, vitamin B-3.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Exists in: liver, yeast, meat, legumes, whole cereals.
Used in: prepared breakfast and baby cereals, peanut butter, enriched foods.
Definition: A B vitamin which is important in the normal functioning of the nervous system.
Typically Vegan

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nonnutritive sweetener

Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: dietetic foods, soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, toothpaste, yogurt.
Examples: saccharin, acesulfame K.
Definition: An artificial sweetener possessing practically no calories.
Vegan

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norbixin

See annatto.

Nutrasweet

See aspartame.

nutritional yeast

Commercial source: fungal.
Used as: flavor, cheese substitute, source of vitamin B-12.
Definition: Inactivated yeast used as a source of protein and vitamins, especially B vitamins.
Vegan

Production information: Red Star Yeast & Products, a major manufacturer of nutritional yeast, reports that no cow bone filter was used in the processing of the molasses used in their growth media. Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula, previously known as T-6635+ yeast powder, is a source of vitamin B-12.

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nutritive sweetener

Commercial source: vegetable, animal (insect), or synthetic.
Examples: dextrose, fructose, sucrose, corn syrup, molasses, honey, aspartame.
Definition: Sweeteners which yield more than two calories per gram.
Typically Vegan

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oil

See fat.

oleic acid

Also known as: cis-9-octadecenoic acid.
Commercial source: Typically animal (cow- or -hog-derived).
Exists in: many plants and animals, and in synthetic form.
Used in: beverages, ice cream, confections, baked goods.
Definition: A component of some fats which may be used as a flavoring or binder in foods.
Typically Non-Vegetarian

Production information: Witco Corp., a major manufacturer of oleic acid, reports that the principal source of oleic acid is cow- or hog-derived. Witco produces a kosher variety which is a uniquely vegetable-based blend of oils.

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oleoresin

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: dry mixes, seasonings, processed foods.
Definition: A concentrated spice or herb extract used as a flavor and/or color enhancer.
Vegan

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Olestra

Also known as: Olean, sucrose polyester.
Commercial source: synthetic (vegetable). The sucrose used to make it may have been filtered through a cow bone filter if the sucrose was derived from sugar cane.
Used in: potato chips, tortilla chips, crackers, cheese puffs.
Definition: A no-calorie fat substitute.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: Proctor and Gamble Co., the creator and producer of Olestra, reports that they use vegetable oils and table sugar to synthesize it. We were unable to determine the source of their table sugar.

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oxidizing agent

Example: hydrogen peroxide.
Definition: An additive which destroys or deactivates undesirable components or contaminants in foods.

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palmitic acid

Also known as: n-hexadecanoic acid.
Commercial source: animal (cow- or hog-derived) or vegetable.
Used in: baked goods, butter and cheese flavorings.
Definition: A component of fat which is used to make unlike ingredients, such as oil and water, blend together in foods.
Typically Non-Vegetarian

Production information: Witco Corp., one of three largest manufacturers of fatty acids, reports that they do have kosher varieties which are all-vegetable, coming from soya oil, although most of their palmitic acid is animal-derived.

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pancreatin

Also known as: pancreatic extract, Hi-Vegi-Lip.
Commercial source: animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Definition: A mixture of enzymes used as a digestive aid.
Non-Vegetarian

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pantothenic acid

Also known as: Vitamin B-5, d-pantothenamide.
Commercial source: Typically synthetic.
Exists in: liver, heart, salmon, eggs, yeast, molasses, various grains.
Used in: foods for special dietary use, nutritional supplements.
Definition: A B vitamin which is important in the utilization of carbohydrate and fat.
Typically Vegan

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papain

Also known as: Caroid.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: meat tenderizers, beverages, enriched farina.
Definition: an enzyme derived from papaya which breaks down proteins into amino acids
Vegan

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paprika

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: spice flavorings for baked goods, condiments, processed meats, salad dressings, sauces, processed cheeses, cured meats, snack foods.
Definition: A red food coloring derived from the pods of dried pepper.
Vegan

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paraffin

Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: chewing gum.
Used on: vegetables.
Definition: A petroleum derivative which is commonly used as a vegetable coating.
Vegan

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pepsin

Commercial source: animal (hog- or cow-derived).
Used in: cheese and cheese products, digestive aids.
Definition: An enzyme used to break down proteins.
Non-Vegetarian

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phenylalanine

Commercial source: Typically bacterial, fungal, or synthetic.
Exists in: many living organisms.
Used in: aspartame, an artificial sweetener.
Definition: A component of some proteins which may be in dietary supplements.
Typically Vegan

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polyacrylomite

Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: some table sugar.
Definition: A petroleum-derived substance used in the processing of sugar cane.
Vegan

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polydextrose

Commercial source: synthetic (typically from vegetable sources).
Used in: frozen desserts, cakes, candy, baked goods, chewing gum.
Definition: A reduced-calorie substance used as a sugar or fat substitute.
Vegan

Production information: Cultor Food Science (previously Pfizer Inc.), the creator and producer of polydextrose, reports that corn is their source of ingredients.

polyethylene

Commercial source: synthetic (typically from vegetable sources).
Used in: chewing gum.
Definition: A synthetic compound which is frequently used as a citrus fruit coating.
Vegan

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polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate

See polysorbate 80.

polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate

See polysorbate 60.

polysorbate

Commercial source: Typically a composite of animal, vegetable, and synthetic substances.
Used in: Gelatin products, salad dressings, baked goods, candy, soups, ice cream, nondairy creamer, artificial toppings, chocolate, pickles, spreads, soft drinks.
Examples: Polysorbate 80, polysorbate 60.
Definition: A common class of food additive most frequently used to blend together ingredients, such as oil and water, which normally do not blend well.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: Stepan Co., a manufacturer of polysorbates, reports that all polysorbates at their plant are from vegetable sources. Lonza Inc., another manufacturer, reports that their kosher polysorbates are from vegetable oils and their non-kosher poly-sorbates may be from animal fats. PPG Industries, Inc., which also produces polysorbates, reports that their kosher polysorbates are of vegetable origin.

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polysorbate 60

Also known as: polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate.
Commercial source: Typically a composite of animal, vegetable, and synthetic substances.
Used in: powdered processed foods, beverage mixes, chocolate coatings, frozen desserts, cakes, dry mixes, doughnuts, artificial chocolate coatings, nondairy whipped cream and creamers, salad dressings not containing egg yolks, vitamin supplements.
Definition: A common food additive used to blend together ingredients, such as oil and water, which normally do not blend well.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: PPG Industries Inc. and Stepan Co., two manufacturers of polysorbate 60, report that they both use vegetable sources.

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polysorbate 80

Also known as: polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate.
Commercial source: Typically a composite of animal, vegetable, and synthetic substances.
Used in: nondairy whipped cream, nondairy coffee creamers, baked goods, ice cream, frozen custard, shortening, vitamin and mineral supplements.
Definition: A common additive used to blend ingredients, such as oil and water, which normally do not blend well.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: PPG Industries Inc. and Stepan Co., two manufacturers of polysorbate 80, report that all of their polysorbate 80 is of vegetable origin.

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potassium acid tartrate

See cream of tartar.

potassium bitartrate

See cream of tartar.

potassium hydrogen tartrate

See cream of tartar.

potassium sorbate

Also known as: sorbic acid potassium salt.
Commercial source: mineral-synthetic.
Used in: cheeses, bread, beverages, margarine, dry sausage, fish, dried fruits, margarine, sherbet, maraschino cherries, tomato juice, pre-peeled carrots, wax cucumbers, chocolate, fresh fruit cocktail, macaroni salads, cheesecake, pie fillings, artificially sweetened jellies and preserves.
Definition: A common yeast and mold inhibitor in many foods.
Vegan

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preservative

Also known as: antimicrobial agent, antispoilant.
Commercial source: mineral-synthetic.
Examples: sodium benzoate, calcium propionate, potassium sorbate.
Definition: The general name for additives used to reduce food spoilage.
Typically Vegan

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processing aid

Commercial source: animal (egg, milk, or cow- or hog-derived), vegetable, mineral, synthetic.
Used in: sugar, wine, juice, beer.
Examples: charcoal, papain, gelatin, cow bone filter.
Definition: Anything added to food ingredients or foods during processing, and completely (or mostly) removed before being sold. A processing aid is commonly used to aid filtration or remove unwanted color/flavor.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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propanoic acid

See propionic acid.

propionic acid

Also known as: propanoic acid.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Exists in: some fruits, flowers, Swiss cheese.
Used in: butter, cheese, and fruit flavorings. Also used in some or all of the following: beverages, ice cream, confections, baked goods.
Definition: A very common food preservative which is typically found in bread products and cheese.
Vegan

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propylene glycol

Also known as: 1,2-propanediol.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: confections, chocolate products, ice cream emulsifiers, shredded coconut, beverages, baked goods, toppings, spices, icings, meat products.
Definition: A common food additive which is often used in the manufacture of many ingredients.
Vegan

Production information: Archer Daniels Midland Co. is conducting research on the production of this compound from sorbitol, derived from corn.

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protease

Commercial source: animal, vegetable, bacterial, fungal. Certain proteases have typical sources. See entries for the examples for more details.
Examples: rennin, pepsin, trypsin, papain, bromelain, lactase.
Used in: meat tenderizers, sausage curing, dough conditioning, beer.
Definition: A general name for all enzymes which break down proteins.
Typically Vegetarian

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protein

Commercial source: animal or vegetable.
Exists in: all living things.
Used in: dietary supplements, processed foods.
Definition: A major class of nutrients composed of amino acids.
May Be Vegetarian

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pyridoxine

Also known as: vitamin B-6, vitamin B-6 hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride, pyridoxol hydrochloride, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Exists in: rice, yeast, bran, liver, cereals.
Used in: baked goods, beverages and beverage bases, cereals, dairy products, meat products, snack foods, baby food.
Definition: A B vitamin which is necessary for the normal utilization of foods.
Typically Vegan

Production information: Schiff Products Inc., a manufacturer of pyridoxine, reports that their method is synthetic.

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reducing agent

Commercial source: vegetable, mineral, or synthetic.
Examples: bioflavinoids, sulfur dioxide.
Definition: A substance used to maintain the taste and color of foods which contain minerals.
Typically Vegan

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refined beet sugar

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: processed foods, baked goods.
Definition: A source of regined sugar.
Vegan

More Information:
Bone Char-Free Sugar from Florida Crystals – and Domino – Sugar
Is Your Sugar Vegan?

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rennet

Commercial source: animal (calf-derived). There are alternatives which are derived from plants, bacteria, or molds.
Used in: cheese, junket (a custard containing this enzyme).
Definition: Enzyme used for the coagulation of milk in the cheese making process. Historically, often was a mixture containing an enzyme (rennin) derived principally from the stomachs of young calves and used to make cheese.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: According to information from the Wisconsin Center for Dairy Research, approximately 95 percent of cheese in the U.S. now is made with non-animal rennet. The enzyme in Kraft® Singles is not from an animal source. The enzymes in the cheese powder in their Macaroni and Cheese are from an animal source (calves and sheep). Check case by case. See: www.vrg.org/journal/vj2008issue3/update_ renet.htm. Also see lipase.

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rennin

Commercial source: fungal, bacterial, animal (calf-derived).
Used in: rennet.
Definition: An enzyme derived principally from the stomachs of young calves and used to make rennet and cheese. See rennet.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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resin

Commercial source: vegetable or synthetic.
Example: petroleum hydrocarbon resin.
Used in: chewing gum base.
Definition: A class of substances which is commonly used as a protective, wax-like coating for fruits and vegetables, and as a chewing gum base.
Vegan

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riboflavin

Also known as: vitamin B-2, lacto-flavin, riboflavin-5-phosphate.
Commercial source: Typically bacterial or fungal.
Exists in: organ meats, fish, milk, eggs, dry yeast, leafy green vegetables.
Used in: dry baby and breakfast cereals, peanut butter, enriched foods (e.g., macaroni, flour, breads and rolls).
Definition: A B vitamin which may be used as a food coloring or as a nutrient fortifier of foods.
Typically Vegan

Production information: Schiff Products Inc., a manufacturer of riboflavin, reports that it may be produced through a yeast fermentation or through a synthetic route. Rhone-Poulenc Inc., another manufacturer, reports that dextrose is their fermentation medium in the production of riboflavin.

More Information:
Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2) and Niacin (Vitamin B-3) Typically Vegan

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rice syrup

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: baked goods, cereal.
Definition: A sweetener derived from brown rice.
Vegan

Production information: California Natural Products, a major manufacturer of rice syrup, reports that no bone filter or gelatin is used in their rice syrup processing.

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rosin

Also known as: colophony.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: chewing gum.
Definition: A tree substance which is used to soften chewing gum.
Vegan

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royal jelly

Commercial source: animal (insect).
Used in: nutrient supplements.
Definition: A substance produced by the glands of bees and used as a source of B vitamins, minerals, and amino acids.
Vegetarian

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saccharin

Also known as: sodium benzosulfimide.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: diet foods and beverages, processed foods, toothpaste, mouthwash.
Definition: An artificial sweetener which yields less than two calories per gram.
Vegan

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saccharose

See sucrose.

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sequestering agent

Also known as: chelating agent.
Commercial source: Typically vegetable, mineral.
Used in: soft drinks, mayonnaise, potatoes.
Examples: citric acid, EDTA, phosphoric acid.
Definition: The name for a general class of preservative which improves food quality and prevents food from changing in an undesirable way over time (e.g., changing color or developing a bad flavor).
Typically Vegan

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shellac

See lac-resin.

Simplesse

Commercial source: animal (milk and egg).
Used in: margarine, ice cream, salad dressings, yogurt.
Definition: A fat substitute.
Vegetarian

Production information: Monsanto Co., the creator and producer of Simplesse, uses whey protein concentrate and egg protein to make it.

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soda ash

See sodium carbonate.

sodium benzoate

Commercial source: mineral-synthetic.
Used in: margarine, bottled soft drinks, maraschino cherries, mincemeat, fruit juices, pickles, confections, fruit jelly preserves, jams. Also used in the ice for cooling fish.
Definition: A very common preservative used mostly in acidic foods.
Vegan

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sodium bicarbonate

Also known as: baking soda, bicarbonate of soda, sodium acid carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate.
Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: baking powder, pancake, biscuit, and muffin mixes, crackers, cookies, soups, sherberts, frozen desserts, dry-mix beverages, soft drinks, syrups, confections, self-rising flours, cornmeals, canned vegetables, mouthwash, butter, cream, milk, ice cream.
Definition: An additive used primarily to make baked goods rise or to adjust the acidity level in foods.
Vegan

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sodium carbonate

Also known as: soda ash.
Commercial Source: mineral.
Used in: soups, puddings, sauces, baked goods, butter, cream, milk, ice cream, olives, cocoa products, mouthwash.
Definition: A food additive with many functions, especially as an acid regulator or flavoring agent.
Vegan

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sodium caseinate

Also known as: casein.
Commercial source: mineral-animal (milk).
Used in: processed meats, ice cream, sherbert, frozen desserts, nondairy whipped toppings, coffee whiteners, egg substitutes, desserts, imitation sausage, soups, stews, diet foods.
Definition: A common food additive with many food uses including whitening, whipping, and binding.
Vegetarian

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sodium hydroxide

Also known as: caustic soda, soda lye.
Commercial source: mineral.
Used in: black olives, food starch, pretzels, potatoes, fruits, vegetable oil, animal fat, sour cream, butter, cocoa products, canned vegetables.
Definition: A common industrial chemical with a wide range of food uses, such as making foods less acidic.
Vegan

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sodium nitrate

Also known as: Chile saltpeter.
Commercial source: mineral.
Exists in: spinach, beets, radishes, eggplant, celery, lettuce, collards, turnip greens, broccoli. Also present in large amounts in vegetables which have been heavily fertilized with nitrate fertilizers.
Used in: meat and meat products.
Definition: A preservative used to cure meats.
Vegan

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sodium pantothenate

See pantothenic acid.

sodium stearoyl lactylate

Commercial source: mineral-vegetable-microbial or mineral-animal (cow- or hog-derived)-microbial.
Used in: bakery mixes, baked products, dehydrated fruits and vegetables and juices made from them, frozen desserts, liquid shortenings, pancake mixes, precooked instant rice, pudding mixes, coffee whiteners, margarine.
Definition: A common food additive often used to condition dough or to blend together ingredients which do not normally blend, such as oil and water.
Typically Vegan

Production information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., a manufacturer of sodium stearoyl lactylate reports that their product is of vegetable origin; the lactic acid is produced from microbial fermentation and the stearic acid, from soy oil. Sodium is a mineral which is added.

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sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate

See sodium stearoyl lactylate.

sorbic acid

Also known as: acetic acid, hexadienic acid, hexadienoic acid, sorbistat.
Commercial source: synthetic.
Used in: cheeses, beverages, baked goods, syrups, fresh fruit cocktail, dried fruit, chocolate syrup, soft drinks, macaroni salads, cheesecake, pie fillings, cakes, artificially sweetened jellies and preserves, wine, canned frosting, pickles, sauerkraut, certain meat and fish products, mouthwashes.
Definition: A mold and yeast inhibitor which is used especially in cheeses and beverages.
Vegan

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sorbitan

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: the manufacture of many other compounds. (See also: polysorbate, polysorbate 60, polysorbate 80).
Definition: A substance derived most often from corn and used in the manufacture of many common food additives, such as polysorbate 80. (See polysorbate 80).
Vegan

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sorbitol

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: candy, vegetable oils, frozen desserts, shredded coconut, sugar-free soft drinks, sugarless chewing gum.
Definition: A type of alcohol most often used as a sugar substitute.
Typically Vegan

Production information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., a manufacturer of sorbitol, uses corn as its carbohydrate source.

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stabilizer

Also known as: thickener.
Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic.
Examples: starch, natural and synthetic gums.
Definition: The general name for a large class of additives which thickens foods or maintains a desired texture or consistency in foods.
Typically Vegan

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starch

See unmodified starch.

stearic acid

Also known as: n-octadecanoic acid.
Commercial source: vegetable, animal (cow- or hog-derived), or synthetic.
Exists in: vegetable and animal oils, animal fats, cascarilla bark extract, and in synthetic form.
Used in: butter flavoring, vanilla flavoring, chewing gum, fruit waxes, butter. Stearic acid is also used to make many other food additives. (See calcium stearate).
Definition: A common additive most often used as a binder in foods.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., a manufacturer of stearic acid, reports that they use soybean oil. Witco Corp., one of the three largest manufacturers of stearic acid, reports that they do have a kosher stearic acid which is all-vegetable, coming from soy oil, although most of their stearic acid is animal-derived, coming from cow and hog sources. Allan Chemical Corp. reports that kosher stearic acid, and its derivatives such as calcium stearate, do not necessarily have to be vegetable-derived.

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Sucanat

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: soy yogurt, puddings, breakfast cereals, cookies, pizza, veggie dogs, teas, juices, granola, mints, lozenges
Definition: Concentrated sugar cane juice available in granular, juice, and syrup forms.
Vegan

Production information: Neither SucanatTM nor USDA Certified Organic SucanantTM, manufactured by Wholesome Sweeteners, is processed through a bone char filter.

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succinic acid

Commercial source: synthetic or vegetable.
Exists in: fungi.
Used in: baked goods, relishes, beverages, sausage.
Definition: An additive used to control the acid level in foods and beverages.
Vegan

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Sucralose

More Information:
Non-animal Coal Filters Used to Process Cane Sugar in Australia

sucrose

Also known as: sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, refined sugar.
Commercial source: vegetable. Sucrose derived from sugar cane may have been processed through a cow bone filter. Sucrose derived from beet sugar has not been processed through a cow bone filter.
Used in: confections, baked goods, processed foods, condiments, beverages, breakfast cereals.
Definition: The major component of refined sugar.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: The largest cane sugar companies today, Florida Crystals and Imperial/ Savannah, use bone char to process almost all of their cane sugar. Some types (evaporated cane juice turbinado, demerera, muscovado, Jack FrostTM brand, SucanatTM, and all USDA Certified Organic sugars) are not processed with bone char.

More Information:
Bone Char-Free Sugar from Florida Crystals – and Domino – Sugar
Non-animal Coal Filters Used to Process Cane Sugar in Australia
Is Your Sugar Vegan?

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suet

See tallow.

sugar

See cane sugar.
See refined beet sugar.
See sucrose.

More Information:
Bone Char-Free Sugar from Florida Crystals – and Domino – Sugar
Non-animal Coal Filters Used to Process Cane Sugar in Australia
Is Your Sugar Vegan?

Sunette

See acesulfame K.

surface-active agents

Also known as: surfactants.
Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, or animal.
Used in: cheeses, salad dressings, peanut butter, processed foods.
Example: sorbitan monostearate (See: sorbitan).
Definition: The general name for many classes of food additives. These additives have various functions such as making substances dissolve in other substances or making foods foam.
Typically Vegan

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surface-finishing agents

Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, or animal.
Used on: fruits, candies, baked goods.
Examples: beeswax, carnauba wax, shellac wax, gum acacia, paraffin. (See entries for these substances).
Definition: A general name for substances which keeps foods looking shiny and helps maintain their color.
Typically Vegetarian

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tallow

Also known as: hydrogenated tallow, tallow flakes, suet, dripping.
Commercial source: animal (cow- or sheep-derived).
Used in: shortening, cooking oil, cake mix.
Definition: An animal fat used to make baked goods light and fluffy or to reduce foam in yeast, beet sugar, or maple syrup production.
Non-Vegetarian

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tartaric acid

Also known as: sodium tartrate, sodium potassium tartrate, Rochelle salts.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Exists in: many fruits, especially grapes.
Used in: frozen dairy products, jellies, food colorings, soft drinks, candy, preserves, baked goods, dried egg whites, pasteurized processed cheese, cheese food and cheese spread, baking powder.
Definition: A substance which adjusts acidity in many foods and beverages, or acts as a flavoring.
Vegan

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texturized vegetable protein

Also known as: TVP, textured soy flour, textured soy protein
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: meat analogs, imitation meats, dry mixes.
Definition: A processed soybean product in which the fat has been removed. It is commonly used as a meat analog.
Vegan

Production information: Archer Daniels Midland Co., a manufacturer of TVP, reports that there are no animal products involved in the processing of it.

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texturizer

Commercial source: Typically vegetable or mineral.
Used in: meat analogs, imitation meats, dry mixes.
Examples: calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, glycerine, corn syrup, modified food starch.
Definition: Food additives which contribute to or preserve the desirable appearance or texture of foods.
Vegan

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thiamin

Also known as: Vitamin B-1, thiamine hydrochloride, thiamine mononitrate, thiamine mononitrite, thiamine.
Commercial source: Typically synthetic.
Exists in: whole grains, wheat germ, dry yeast, legumes, nuts, egg yolks, fruits, vegetables, some meats.
Used in: prepared breakfast cereals, peanut butter, baby cereals, enriched foods, frozen egg substitute, crackers, dietary supplements.
Definition: A B vitamin which is required for normal functioning of the nervous system and for the utilization of carbohydrates.
Typically Vegan

Production information: Schiff Products Inc., a manufacturer of thiamin, reports that their process is synthetic.

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thiamin mononitrate

See thiamin.

trypsin

Commercial source: animal (cow- or hog-derived).
Used in: cheese and cheese products.
Definition: A common digestive enzyme.
Non-Vegetarian

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tumeric

See turmeric.

turbinado sugar

Also known as: natural sugar, washed raw sugar.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: confections, desserts.
Definition: Partially refined sugar which contains some molasses. It has not passed through a cow bone filter.
Vegan

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turmeric

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: margarine, shortening, processed foods, bakery mixes, sausage casings, flavorings in condiments, soups, meats, relishes, and pickles.
Definition: A yellow food coloring and flavoring derived from an herb.
Vegan

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TVP

See texturized vegetable protein.

tyrosine

Also known as: L-tyrosine.
Commercial source: animal (poultry feathers).
Exists in: animals and plants.
Used as: dietary supplement.
Definition: An amino acid needed by humans which can be produced by the body.

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unmodified food starch

See unmodified starch.

unmodified starch

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: gravies and soups.
Definition: Chemically untreated starch used as a thickener.
Vegan

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vanilla

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: ice cream, sauces, beverages, desserts, baked goods.
Definition: A common flavoring derived from the vanilla bean.
Vegan

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vanilla extract

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: baked goods, desserts, confections, beverages.
Definition: A flavoring made from the vanilla bean.
Vegan

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vanillin

Commercial source: synthetic.
Exists in: vanilla extract, potato peelings.
Used in: butter, margarine, chocolate products, desserts, ice cream, baked goods, root beer, liqueurs.
Definition: A synthetic flavoring used as a substitute for vanilla extract.
Vegan

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vinegar

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: salad dressings, ketchup, sauces, relishes, breads.
Definition: An acid regulator and flavoring agent in which acetic acid is the active component. (See acetic acid).
Vegan

Product information: The Vinegar Institute, an association of vinegar manufacturers, reports that sugar vinegar is not derived from refined sugar. They also say that only mineral or synthetic filters are used in the vinegar industry.

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vinegar, distilled

See distilled vinegar.

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vital wheat gluten

See wheat gluten.

vitamin

Commercial source: Typically synthetic, bacterial, or fungal. See specific vitamins for more information.
Exists in: all living organisms.
Examples: vitamin C, vitamin B-12.
Used in: enriched foods, dietary supplements.
Definition: Substances which are essential in small amounts for human health.
Typically Vegetarian

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vitamin A

Also known as: vitamin A acetate, vitamin A palmitate, vitamin A propionate, retinol.
Commercial source: Typically synthetic or animal-synthetic.
Exists in: milk, eggs, some fish oil. Many orange and yellow vegetables contain a substance which is transformed in the body into the vitamin.
Used in: skim milk, dietary infant formula, blue cheese, Gorgonzola cheese, milk, margarine, frozen egg substitute.
Definition: A vitamin necessary for cell growth and the prevention of night blindness.
May Be Non-Vegetarian

Production information: Rhone-Poulenc Inc., a manufacturer of this vitamin, reports that a petrochemical is used as the starting material. The vitamin may be combined with acetic, propionic or palmitic acids and used in foods in this form. (See entries for acetic, propionic, and palmitic acids).

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vitamin B-1

See thiamin.

vitamin B-2

See riboflavin.

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vitamin B-3

See niacin.

vitamin B-5

See pantothenic acid.

vitamin B-6

See pyridoxine.

vitamin B-12

Also known as: cyanocobalamin.
Commercial source: bacterial, fungal, or synthetic.
Exists in: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products.
Used in: nutritional supplements, breakfast cereals, nutritional yeast, processed foods.
Definition: A B vitamin which is essential for the formation of red blood cells and the maintenance of a healthy nervous system.
Vegan

Production information: Rhone-Poulenc Inc. and Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., two of the largest producers of this vitamin, report that bacterial fermentation is their method of manufacture.

More Information:
Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet
Injectable Vitamin B-12

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vitamin C

Also known as: ascorbic acid, iso-ascorbic (erythorbic) acid, sodium ascorbate, sodium isoascorbate.
Commercial source: Typically synthetic (from corn).
Exists in: many fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits.
Used in: beverages, potato flakes, breakfast foods, bread dough, canned and frozen processed foods, processed meats, frozen fruit, dry and fluid milk.
Definition: A vitamin necessary for the maintenance of body tissues and normal bones.
Vegan

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Vitamin D2

Also known as: ergocalciferol, calciferol
Commercial source: fungal (yeast, mushrooms), plant (sugar cane), petrochemical
Exists in: wild mushrooms, UV-irradiated mushrooms
Used in: non-dairy milks, bread and bread products, vitamin supplements
Used as a: food fortifier, nutritional supplement

Definition: Ergocalciferol is a secosteroid which is similar to a steroid hormone although it is commonly referred to as a vitamin. Ergocalciferol is an inactive precursor to the active form of vitamin D2 believed to be used by the body in many ways including regulation of calcium absorption for bone health.

Manufacturers:

Lallemand Inc. reports that “Lallemand Bakers Yeast is a vegetarian, non-fortified source of Vitamin D, which is both dairy and animal-free. Yeast requires a carbohydrate source to grow; the most economical are molasses and corn syrup.”
http://vitamind.lallemand.com/
Sichuan Neijiang Hui Zin Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. states that their “Vitamin D2 comes from sugarcane of natural plant.”
http://www.vd2.cn/
Jamieson Laboratories Ltd. says their vitamin D2 is “extracted from the sugar cane stalk.”
http://www.jamiesonvitamins.com/node/139
Synthesia, a.s. reports that they manufacture pharmaceutical grade vitamin D2. “Production is synthesis by organic chemicals.”

Vegan
Entry updated: March 2014

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Vitamin D3

Also known as: cholecalciferol, activated 7-dehydrocholesterol, calciferol
Commercial source: animal (lanolin from sheep's wool); lichen (fungal/algal)
Exists in: some fish and fish liver oils, egg yolks, lichen
Used in: dairy products, infant formula, cereal, juice, bread and bread products, margarine, vitamin supplements
Used as a: food fortifier, nutritional supplement

Definition: Cholecalciferol is a secosteroid which is similar to a steroid hormone although it is commonly referred to as a vitamin. Cholecalciferol is an inactive precursor to the active form of vitamin D3 believed to be used by the body in many ways including regulation of calcium absorption for bone health. When 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is exposed to adequate sunlight, cholecalciferol is produced giving vitamin D its nickname: the sunshine vitamin.

Manufacturers:

DSM reports that “cholesterol isolated from lanolin is primary raw material for D3 manufacturing.”
https://www.dsm.com/markets/foodandbeverages/en_US/products/vitamins/vitamin-d.html
ESB Developments Ltd. states that they “…can confirm the lichen is not grown on any corn/sucrose media nor do we artificially feed it in any way.”
http://vitashine-d3.com/vitashine.html
Vegetarian
Entry updated: March 2014

More Information:
FAQs about Vitamin D
Vegan Vitamin D3 Now Available in the US
Veggie vitamin D3 maker explores novel production process to secure future supplies
Vitashine Vegan Vitamin D3 Supplements
Vitashine Vegan D3 information

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vitamin E

Also known as: tocopherol, alpha tocopherol.
Commercial source: vegetable or synthetic.
Exists in: vegetables oils, wheat germ, nuts, green leafy vegetables.
Used in: fats and oils, dietary supplements.
Definition: A vitamin which is essential for normal muscle growth.
Typically Vegetarian

Production information: Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. produces a synthetic vitamin E, although they report that they will eventually convert to a natural extraction.

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wax

Commercial source: vegetable, synthetic, animal (insect- or cow-derived).
Used in: chewing gum base, candy.
Used on: produce, food packages.
Definition: The name for substances which are similar to fats and repulse water. They are most often used as fruit and vegetable protective coatings.
Typically Vegetarian

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wheat gluten

Also known as: wheat isolate, wheat gluten, vital wheat gluten.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: seitan, bread, baked goods.
Definition: A mixture of proteins from wheat flour.
Vegan

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whey

Commercial source: animal (milk).
Used in: baked goods, ice cream, dry mixes, processed foods.
Definition: The watery material which remains after most of the protein and fat have been removed from milk during the cheese-making process. Whey does contain much of the enzyme used to make the cheese. The most common source of enzyme is microbial although it may be animal in some cases.
Typically Vegetarian

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wine

Commercial source: vegetable.
Definition: An alcoholic beverage made from plants or fruit, especially grapes. Wine may be made clear through treatment with a small amount of animal protein such as gelatin, albumen, or casein. (See gelatin, albumen, and casein). It may also be made clear through a mineral filter known as bentonite. (See bentonite).
May Be Non-Vegetarian

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xanthan gum

Also known as: corn sugar gum.
Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: dairy products, salad dressings, sauces, baked goods, pie fillings, beverages.
Definition: A widely used and versatile vegetable gum which is sometimes used as a thickener.
Vegan

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yeast extract

See autolyzed yeast extract.

yeast food

Commercial source: Typically vegetable or mineral.
Examples: malt, sugar, calcium phosphate.
Used in: baked goods, beer, wine.
Definition: A general term for all the substances added to nourish yeast and speed up the process by which they produce alcoholic beverages or baked goods.
Typically Vegan

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Zeaxanthin

Alternate names: zeaxanthol, E161h
Commercial source: marigold, paprika
Found in: green leafy vegetables, yellow-orange fruits and vegetables, egg yolk, spirulina
Used in: dietary supplements, beverages
Used as: dietary supplement, colorant
Definition: An oxycarotenoid (xanthophyll) believed important for eye health, zeaxanthin is typically found along with lutein in food sources as it is in the eye. Unlike another carotenoid beta-carotene, zeaxanthin does not exhibit pro-vitamin A activity.

Manufacturers:

Kalsec
told us that \93our zeaxanthin is free from any and all animal or animal derived products.\94 We also learned that they \93do have a manufacturing partner who does microencapsulation...It is not gelatin however but a non-gmo starch matrix that dissolves after consumption in order to enter the bloodstream.\94
Kemin
told us that their zeaxanthin product is \93free of animal ingredients as well as animal-derived processing aids.\94 It is also \93free of bovine gelatin and has been for several years now.\94
Omniactives
told us that their product \93contains no animal products.\94 They do not offer a gelatin encapsulated form.
Typically Vegan
Entry added: August 2014

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zein

Commercial source: vegetable.
Used in: nuts, grain products, confections.
Definition: A corn protein which functions as a coating or glaze.
Vegan
Additional information about zein:
Zein Used for Shellac, Biodegradable Coatings, Diapers...
A Swiss Company Writes...How Can Zein Be Approved for Food Use in the European Union? What Are E Numbers?

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© Copyright 1997 The Vegetarian Resource Group, Inc., Updated 2000 (3rd edition), Partially updated 2010 (4th edition)

Jeanne Yacoubou, MS, The Vegetarian Resource Group Research Director, wrote the first and fourth editions of this Guide. She holds master's degrees in philosophy, chemistry, and education.

Handy Guide to Food Ingredients

Classification of Commercial Ingredients

Vegetarian means that the ingredient does not contain products derived from meat, fish, or fowl. It may include sources from eggs or dairy. Insect secretions, such as honey, are also classified as vegetarian. Vegan means that the item contains no animal products whatsoever. Non-vegetarian means that the ingredient (or substance used to process the ingredient) is derived from meat, fish, or fowl. Or, non-vegetarian can apply to substances, such as proteins or amino acids, derived from animals (including insects), when the collection of those substances necessitated the intentional death of that animal.

In some cases, a few manufacturers told us that they use vegetarian sources. However, we cannot say with certainty that all manufacturers of a given ingredient produce that ingredient in the same way. Thus, we have classified these ingredients as typically vegetarian, typically vegan, typically non-vegetarian or may be non-vegetarian. The classification depends on the degree to which we may conclude from manufacturers' information that a given ingredient may be vegetarian or vegan. Note that a vegetarian or vegan ingredient may have been tested on animals.

Vegetarian

acid casein
albumen
beeswax
calcium caseinate
carbohydrate
casein
honey
lac-resin
lactalbumin
lactose
royal jelly
shellac
Simplesse
sodium caseinate
vitamin D3

back to categories

Vegan

1,2-propanediol
Accent 
acesulfame K
acesulfame potassium 
acetic acid
acid calcium phosphate
acrylate-acrylamide resin
acrylic acid
activated charcoal
agar
agar-agar
algin
alginate
alginic acid
alum
aluminum ammonium
annatto
annatto extract
annatto seed
apple acid 
arabic
ascorbic acid
aspartame
autolyzed yeast extract
baking powder
baking soda
beet sugar
bentonite
benzoyl peroxide
BHA
BHT
bicarbonate of soda
bioflavinoids
Brewer's yeast
bromelain
bromelin 
butanoic acid
butylated hydroxyanisole
butylated hydroxytoluene
butyric acid
calcium biphosphate
calcium carbonate
calcium chloride
calcium phosphates
calcium phosphate dibasic
calcium phosphate monobasic
calcium phosphate tribasic
calcium propionate
calcium sulfate
calcium sulfate anhydrous
candelilla wax
caramel color
carboxymethyl-cellulose
carnauba wax
carob bean gum
caroid
carrageenan
caustic soda
cellulose gum
charcoal
Chile saltpeter
chondrus extract
citric acid
CMC
cocoa butter
colophony
corn gluten
corn gluten meal
cream of tartar
cyanocobalamin
cystine
DevanSweet
diatomaceous earth
dicalcium phosphate dihydrate
distillation
distilled vinegar
EDTA
Equal
erythorbic acid
essential oil
ethanol
ethyl alcohol
ethyl vanillin
fumaric acid
gellan gum
gluten
grain alcohol
grain vinegar
guaran
guar flour
guar gum
gypsum
hesperidin
hexadienic acid
hexadienoic acid
high fructose corn syrup
hydrogenation
hydrogen peroxide
Irish moss
isoascorbic acid
Japanese isinglass
kieselguhr
light oil
lime
locust bean gum
maleic acid
malic acid
malt
maltodextrin
maltol
maltose
malt extract
malt sugar
mannitol
methyl paraben
methyl-p-hydroxy-benzoate
mineral oil
molasses
monocalcium phosphate
monosodium glutamate
MSG
natural sugar
nonnutritive sweetener
norbixin
Nutrasweet
nutritional yeast
n-butyric acid 
oleoresin
papain
paprika
paraffin
plaster of Paris
polyacrylomite
polydextrose
polyethylene
potash alum
potassium acid tartrate
potassium bitartrate
potassium hydrogen tartrate
potassium sorbate
potassium sulfate
precipitated calcium phosphate
propanoic acid
propanoic acid, calcium salt
propionic acid
propylene glycol
refined beet sugar
resin
rice syrup
Rochelle salts
rosin
rutin
saccharin
soda ash
soda lye
sodium acid carbonate
sodium ascorbate
sodium benzoate
sodium benzosulfimide
sodium bicarboante
sodium carbonate
sodium carboxymethylcellulose
sodium hydrogen carbonate
sodium hydroxide
sodium isoascorbate
sodium nitrate
sodium potassium tartrate
sodium tartrate
sorbic acid
sorbic acid, potassium salt
sorbistat
sorbitan
spirit vinegar
starch
St. John's bread
Sucanat
succinic acid
Sucralose
Sunette
tartaric acid
textured soy flour
textured soy protein
texturized vegetable protein
tricalcium phosphate
tumeric
turbinado sugar
turmeric
TVP
unmodified food starch
unmodified starch
vanilla
vanilla extract
vanillin
vinegar
vinegar, distilled
vital wheat gluten
vitamin B-12
vitamin C
vitamin D2
vitamin E
washed raw sugar
wheat gluten
wheat isolate
white distilled vinegar
white oil
white vinegar
xanthan gum
yeast autolyzates
zein
Zest

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Non-Vegetarian

carmine
carminic acid
cochineal
dripping
gelatin
Hi-Vegi-Lip
hydrogenated tallow
isinglass
keratin
lard
lard oil
pancreatic extract
pancreatin
pepsin
pork fat
pork oil
suet
tallow
tallow flakes
trypsin

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Typically Vegetarian

acidulant
alanine
albumin
amino acid
antidusting agent
antioxidant
arginine
artificial flavor
aspartic acid
beta-carotene
biotin
caproic acid
caprylic acid
carotene
carotenoid
cholecalciferol
coenzyme
color
corn sugar
curing agent
dextrose
dough conditioner
drying agent
emulsifier
enzyme
fermentation aid
flavor enhancer
foaming agent
fructose
fructose syrup
glucose
glutamic acid
glycine
hexanoic acid
humectant
hydroscopic agent
lactase
levulose
malting aid
moisture-retaining agent
moisture-retention agent
n-hexanoic acid
oil
protease
Provitamin A
surface acting agent
surface-finishing agent
surface-finishing agents
vitamin B factor
vitamin D
wax
wetting agent
whey
whipping agent

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Typically Vegan

alpha tocopherol
amylase
antimicrobial agent
antispoilant
artificial coloring
butyl lactate
calciferol
calcium pantothenate
chelating agent
Datem
Defoaming agent
diglyceride
disodium inosinate
dough strengthener
d-pantothenamide
ethyl lactate
firming agent
glyceride
glycerin
glycerine
glycerol
isomerized syrup
lactic acid
lactoflavin
leavener
leavening agent
lecithin
levulose-bearing syrup
Lutein
maple sugar
maple syrup
monoglyceride
natural coloring
niacin
niacinamide
nicotinamide
nicotinic acid
nutritive sweetener
pantothenic acid
phenylalanine
preservative
pyridoxal
pyridoxamine
pyridoxine
pyridoxine hydrochloride
pyridoxol hydrochloride
reducing agent
riboflavin
riboflavin-5-phosphate
sequestering agent
sodium pantothenate
sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate
sodium stearoyl lactylate
sorbitol
stabilizer
surface-active agent
surface-active agents
surfactant
texturizer
thiamin
thiamine
thiamine hydrochloride
thiamine mononitrate
thiamine mononitrite
thiamin mononitrate
thickener
tocopherol
vitamin
vitamin B-1
vitamin B-2
vitamin B-3
vitamin B-5
vitamin B-6
vitamin B-6 hydrochloride
vitamin E
vitamin P complex
yeast food
Zeaxanthin

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May be Non-Vegetarian

activated carbon
adipic acid
anticaking agent
calcium stearate
cane sugar
capric acid
clarifier
clarifying agent
colorose
fat
fatty acid
fining agent
folacin
folic acid
free-flow agent
hexanedioic acid
inversol
invert sugar
invert sugar syrup
magnesium stearate
modified food starch
modified starch
natural flavor
n-decanoic acid
n-octadecanoic acid
Olean
Olestra
polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate
polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate
polysorbate
polysorbate 60
polysorbate 80
processing aid
protein
pteroyl glutamic acid
refined sugar
rennet
rennin
retinol
stearic acid
sucrose
sucrose polyester
sugar
sugar syrup, invert
vitamin A
vitamin A acetate
vitamin A palmitate
vitamin A propionate
wine

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Typically Non-Vegetarian

cis-9-octadecenoic acid
lipase
myristic acid
n-hexadecanoic acid
n-tetradecanoic acid
oleic acid
palmitic acid

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